Solved Constitution & Polity mains Previous year question with solution created by highly skilled faculty and team of Rau’s IAS. Our solutions are comprehensive and easy to understand, and will help you prepare for the UPSC exam effectively.
- “Constitutionally guaranteed judicial independence is a prerequisite of democracy.” Comment.
- Who are entitled to receive free legal aid? Assess the role of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) in rendering free legal aid in India.
- “The states in India seem reluctant to empower urban local bodies both functionally as well as financially.” Comment.
- Compare and contrast the British and Indian approaches to Parliamentary sovereignty.
- Discuss the role of Presiding Officers of state legislatures in maintaining order and impartiality in conducting legislative work and in facilitating best democratic practices.
- Discuss the role of the Competition Commission of India in containing the abuse of dominant position by the Multi-National Corporations in India. Refer to the recent decisions.
- e-governance, as a critical tool of governance, has ushered in effectiveness, transparency and accountability in governments. What inadequacies hamper the enhancement of these features?
- “The Constitution of India is a living instrument with capabilities of enormous dynamism. It is a constitution made for a progressive society.” Illustrate with special reference to the expanding horizons of the right to life and personal liberty.
- Account for the legal and political factors responsible for the reduced frequency of using Article 356 by the Union Governments since mid-1990s.
- Explain the constitutional perspectives of Gender Justice with the help of relevant Constitutional Provisions and case laws.
- Explain the significance of the 101st Constitutional Amendment Act. To what extent does it reflect the accommodative spirit of federalism?
- Explain the structure of the Parliamentary Committee system. How far have the financial committees helped in the institutionalisation of Indian Parliament?
- “The most significant achievement of modern law in India is the constitutionalization of environmental problems by the Supreme Court.” Discuss this statement with the help of relevant case laws.
- “Right of movement and residence throughout the territory of India are freely available to the Indian citizens, but these rights are not absolute.” Comment.
- To what extent, in your opinion, has the decentralisation of power in India changed the governance landscape at the grassroots?
- Discuss the role of the Vice-President of India as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
- Discuss the role of the National Commission for Backward Classes in the wake of its transformation from a statutory body to a constitutional body.
- Discuss the procedures to decide the disputes arising out of the election of a Member of the Parliament or State Legislature under The Representation of the People Act, 1951. What are the grounds on which the election of any returned candidate may be declared void? What remedy is available to the aggrieved party against the decision? Refer to the case laws.
- Discuss the essential conditions for exercise of the legislative powers by the Governor. Discuss the legality of re-promulgation of ordinances by the Governor without placing them before the Legislature.
- “While the national political parties in India favour centralisation, the regional parties are in favour of State autonomy.” Comment.
- Critically examine the procedures through which the Presidents of India and France are elected.
- Discuss the role of the Election Commission of India in the light of the evolution of the Model Code of Conduct.
- ‘Constitutional Morality’ in rooted in the Constitution itself and is founded on its essential facets. Explain the doctrine of ‘Constitutional Morality’ with the help of relevant judicial decisions.
- Discuss the desirability of greater representation to women in the higher judiciary to ensure diversity, equity and inclusiveness.
- How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the States to improve their fiscal position?
- To what extent, in your view, the Parliament is able to ensure accountability of the executive in India?
- “Pressure groups play a vital role in influencing public policy making in India.” Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies.
- Analyze the distinguishing features of the notion of Right to Equality in the Constitutions of the USA and India.
- Explain the constitutional provisions under which Legislative Councils are established. Review the working and current status of Legislative Councils with suitable illustrations.
- Do Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples.
- “There is a need for simplification of procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of peoples Act”. Comment.
- How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer
- The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in the recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices.
- “Once a speaker, Always a speaker’ Do you think the practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India?
- Judicial Legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities.
- The strength sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funs’ to the contemporary stage of ‘Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times.
- Which steps are required for constitutionalization of a commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons.
- Do you think that constitution of India does not accept principle of strict separation of powers rather it is based on the principle of ‘checks and balance’? Explain.
- “The Central Administration Tribunal which was established for redressal of grievances and complaints by or against central government employees, nowadays is exercising its powers as an independent judicial authority.” Explain.
- What are the methods used by the Farmers organizations to influence the policy- makers in India and how effective are these methods?
- From the resolution of contentious issues regarding distribution of legislative powers by the courts, ‘Principle of Federal Supremacy’ and ‘Harmonious Construction’ have emerged. Explain.
- What can France learn from the Indian Constitution’s approach to secularism?
- On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification.
- “Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution is a limited power and it cannot be enlarged into absolute power.” In the light of this statement explain whether Parliament under Article 368 of the Constitution can destroy the Basic Structure of the Constitution by expanding its amending power?
- “The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser and lawyer of the Government of India.” Discuss.
- Individual Parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss.
- In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India?
- Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Schedules Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine.
- Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force?
- Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work? Discuss, in this context, the role of the Estimates Committee.
- “The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise.
- Whether the Supreme Court Judgement (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine.
- How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India.
- India and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based.
- How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you know about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss.
- Assess the importance of the Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects?
- Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgment on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India.
- ‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss.
- Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people.
- Explain the salient features of the Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016. Do you think it is efficacious enough ‘to remove cascading effect of taxes and provide for common national market for goods and services’?
- Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy.
- The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding joint session of the two houses of the Parliament. Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof.
- To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful?
- Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies, if any that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and the institution of the Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian federal politics?
- To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “Temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity.
- The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss.
- Exercise of CAC’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s Policy implementation could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction.
- Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the preamble. Are they defendable in the present circumstances stances?
- What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution?
- Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss.
- What is a quasi-judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples.
- Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizens a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy.
- The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasized in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and the extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings.
- In absence of a well-educated and organized local level government system, ‘Panchayats’ and ‘Samitis’ have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instruments of Governance. Critically discuss.
- Khap Panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra-constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard.
- Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of powers doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate ordinances, analyze whether the decisions of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated retorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate ordinances be repealed?
- What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1990 through the recent Ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss.
- Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulations on burning crackers during Diwali ? Discuss in the light of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution and Judgement(s) of the Apex Court in this regard.
- Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy.
- Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss.
- The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed?
- Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse.
- What do you understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss.
- The role of individual MPs (Members of Parliament) has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law, which was legislated but with a different intention?
- Discuss Section 66A of IT Act, with reference to its alleged violation of Article 19 of the Constitution.
- Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the ‘Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution.
- The Supreme Court of India keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament in amending the Constitution. Discuss critically.
- Many State Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at State level? Discuss.
- Constitutional mechanisms to resolve the inter-state water disputes have failed to address and solve the problems. Is the failure due to structural or process inadequacy or both? Discuss.
- Discuss the recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission which have been a departure from the previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances.
- The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify.
We encourage you to use Rau’s IAS Polity Mains Previous Year Questions with Solution as part of your overall UPSC preparation strategy. By combining our solutions with other resources, such as NCERT textbooks, reference books, and practice tests, you will be well on your way to success in the UPSC exam.