Critically examine the procedures through which the Presidents of India and France are elected.

Sample Answer


France follows a semi-presidential form of government and accordingly their President is elected directly but through two rounds. Whereas the Indian President is elected indirectly as we follow the Parliamentary form of government.


Election of Indian PresidentElection of French President
• Article 54 – President elected by an Electoral College comprising elected members of
➔both Houses of Parliament
➔Legislative Assemblies of all States and Union Territory of Delhi and Puducherry.

• Article 55(3) – election held according to the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote by secret ballot.

• The candidate must secure 50% of the total votes cast + 1 vote to win the Presidential election.
• Direct election held in two rounds.

• 1st Round – to officially become the candidate, contenders must be nominated by at least 500 elected representatives.

• Official Election Campaign – each candidate is given equal airtime on TV and Radio.

• Two weeks before the second round, 1st Round of the election takes place.

• Only if no candidates win over 50% of the vote, a second round is organised.

• Only 2 candidates with the most votes qualify for the second round.


Election of Indian PresidentElection of French President

• Value of votes differs for state legislatures as it is based on population.

• Election can be carried out even if any state assembly is dissolved under Article 356

• Presidential Elections cannot be challenged by any person other than the candidate or an elector.   
• Lack of approval from 500 elected representatives restricts nomination for candidates.

• Even if a candidate secures maximum votes despite being less than 50%, the second round is held. This reduces their opportunity in the second round.


Despite differences in the election process, for their President, both India and France have been successful Republics.

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