Parvatmala Pariyojana for Ropeway Development

Union Budget 2022-23 first announced Parvatmala Pariyojana – National Ropeways Development Program. In Budget 2022-23 the focus was on developing 8 ropeways in India. However, Union Ministry for Road Transport & Highways has expanded the scope of the project to 1,200 km of ropeway length in next 5 years.


  • Government of India plans to develop 250+ Ropeway Projects with length of over 1,200 km in 5 years.
  • The projects under the scheme will be taken under PPP under Hybrid Annuity Model with 60% contribution support by Government of India.
  • This is a program of Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. (Note: Amendment in Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 empowers Ministry of Road Transport & Highways to look after development of Ropeways and Alternate Mobility Solutions.

Importance of Ropeways

  • Ropeways are cable propelled transit systems which are an alternative mobility transport solution as compared to roads in difficult hilly areas.
  • Ropeways will enable mobility to people living in difficult areas and help them become part of mainstream. Villagers/farmers living in such areas will be able to sell their produces in other areas, which in turn help them grow their income.
  • They are a modern and sustainable system of transportation and connectivity on the mountains, can promote tourism and may also ease access to congested urban areas, where conventional mass transit system is not feasible.
  • Ideal for difficult/challenging/sensitive terrain: Ropeways are built with long rope spans which helps it cross obstacles like rivers, buildings, ravines or roads without a problem. Also, in ropeways ropes are guided over towers which results in low space requirements on ground and creates no barriers for humans or animals.
  • Low land acquisition cost: Since ropeways are built in a straight line over a hilly terrain, they can be constructed with lower land acquisition costs. Hence, despite having a higher cost of construction per km than roadways, ropeway projects construction cost may happen to be economical than roadways.
  • Economical operations: Ropeways have multiple cars propelled by a single power-plant and drive mechanism. This reduces both construction and maintenance costs. The use of a single operator for an entire ropeway is a further saving. On level ground, the cost of ropeways is competitive with narrow-gauge railroads; in the mountains the ropeway is far superior.
  • Faster mode: Since ropeways are an aerial mode of transportation and built in straight line, transportation over ropeways takes less time in difficult terrain.
  • Environmentally friendly: Ropeways result in low dust emissions. Material containers can be designed to rule out any soiling of environment.
  • Last-Mile connectivity: Ropeway projects adopting 3S (a kind of cable car system) or equivalent technologies can transport 6000-8000 passengers per hour.
  • Ability to handle large slopes: Ropeways and cableways (cable cranes) can handle large slopes and large differences in elevation. While a road or rail needs switchbacks or tunnels, a ropeway travels straight up & down the fall line.
  • Low footprint: For ropeways only narrow-based vertical supports are needed at intervals, leaving the rest of the ground free. This makes it possible for ropeways to be constructed in built-up areas and in places where there is intense competition for land use.

Way forward

  • Need to promote manufacturing of ropeway components under Make in India Initiative.
  • Create standards for safety, auditing and regulatory environment of ropeways.
  • Partnership with state governments for identifying locations and accelerating development of ropeways.
  • Development of new technologies and global best practices.
  • Provision of financing for ropeways. 

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