Jal Jeevan Mission

Context: As per a report only 75% of households are likely to have a water connection by March 2024. The delay is due to several factors, including the pandemic, which slowed operations, and the Russia-Ukraine war, which caused a shortage in raw materials for manufacturing metal pipes.

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About Jal Jeevan Mission(JJM)

  • It is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household functional tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India. 
  • The programme will also implement source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, such as recharge and reuse through greywater management, water conservation, rainwater harvesting. 
  • It will be based on a community approach to water and will include extensive Information, Education, and communication as a key component of the mission.
  • It looks to create a Jan Andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority.
  • Launched in 2019 and comes under the Department of Drinking Water & Sanitation, Ministry of Jalshakti.
  • It adopted the principle of ‘equity and inclusion’, i.e., ensuring ‘no one is le out’ from getting tap water connection and regular water supply in the village, especially weaker and marginalized sections.
  • The fund-sharing pattern between the Centre and states is 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States, 50:50 for other states, and 100% for Union Territories.

Reforms taken under JJM

  • Shift of focus for water supply from ‘habitations to households’: So far,drinking water supply was provided at a habitation level and Under JJM, provision of tap water is being made in every rural home.
  • Focus on ‘service delivery’ & ‘functionality’ – public utility: Under JJM, the focus has shifted to the assured supply of potable water to every home rather than the mere creation of water supply infrastructure.
  • Community ownership to ensure ‘long-term sustainability of water supply schemes: To ensure transparency and give back power to people, water supply work is taken up as per the demand and need of the local community. A water supply scheme is planned and implemented by following a decentralised, demand-driven, community-managed approach.
  • Central role of women and weaker sections in managing water supply: Minimum 50% members of Village Water & Sanitation Committee (VWSC)/ Pani Samtis are to be women and proportionate representation of weaker sections of society.
  • Special focus on children – piped water supply in schools, Anganwadi centres and ashram shalas.
  • Potable drinking water in quality-affected habitations: Infants and children are more susceptible to water-borne diseases: Under JJM, the provision of piped water supply in schools, Anganwadi centers and ashram shalas (residential tribal schools) is to be made on priority.
  • Surveillance of water quality by the local community involving women: Enlightened citizenry is necessary for assured service delivery. Keeping this in view, at least five persons in every village, preferably women, are to be trained in using Field Test Kits (FTKs) for testing water quality at the village level.
  • Convergence for long-term drinking water security: Every village is to prepare a Village Action Plan (VAP) focusing on drinking water sources, water supply systems, grey water reuse, and operation & maintenance of these systems for long-term and regular tap water supply in every home
  • Making water everyone’s business: JJM is implemented in a participatory manner and Self-Help Groups (SHGs), NGOs, community-based organisations, voluntary organisations, etc. are to play a major role in raising awareness, community mobilisation and handholding.
  • Technological interventions for transparency and accountability: To ensure transparency, accountability, and proper utilisation of funds and service delivery, the following steps are undertaken:
  • A robust JJM–IMIS to capture physical and financial progress under JJM, in real-time and a dedicated ‘Dashboard’ in the public domain;
  • A dedicated ‘Mobile App’ developed for the use of all stakeholders,
  • Sensor-based IoT solution for measurement and monitoring of water supply for quantity, quality, and regularity in villages on a real-time basis;
  • Provision of geo-tagging every asset created under JJM;
  • Linkage of tap connection with Aadhar number of the ‘head of household’;
  • All transactions through Public Finance Management System (PFMS); 
  • A comprehensive JJM – Water Quality Management Information System (JJM – WQMIS) was developed.

Performance of JJM

  • Despite several disruptions in recent years due to the Pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine conflict etc., States/ UTs have made persistent efforts to implement the Jal Jeevan Mission. The country crossed with over 11.66 Crore (60%) rural households provided with tap water supply in their homes. 
  • 5 states of Gujarat, Telangana, Goa, Haryana, and Punjab and 3 Union Territories of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Daman Diu & Dadra Nagar Haveli and Puducherry have reported 100% coverage. The country is steadily progressing towards covering all the rural households will have safe drinking water through taps.
  • More than 1.55 lakh villages, (25% of the total number of villages), in India have so far reported ‘Har Ghar Jal’, i.e., every household in these villages has access to clean drinking water through taps at their household premises
  • In just about 3 years, more than 8.42 crore rural households with more than 40 crore people (@4.95 persons per rural household, source IMIS) have benefitted under the programme. 

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