India reports record 93% DPT3 immunisation coverage in 2022: WHO

Context: Recently, World Health Organisation (WHO) and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have released estimates for National Immunisation Coverage for 2022 for its 195 member states. 

image 54

Each year WHO and UNICEF jointly review reports submitted by Member States to both agencies regarding national immunisation coverage.

Major Highlights of the Estimates:

  • The coverage rate for DPT3, the third dose of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccines, in India rose to an all-time 93% in 2022. It has surpassed the previous pre-pandemic best of 91% recorded in 2019. It has also marked a sharp increase from the 85% recorded in 2021.
    • DPT vaccine is a class of combination vaccines against three infectious diseases– diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. This vaccine is administered to children in 3 doses for children below 7 years of age.
  • The South-East Asia Region had the best immunisation recoveries among all the WHO regions which can be majorly attributed to the efforts being made by India and Indonesia. In the region, the coverage rate for DPT3 recovered to the pre-pandemic level of 91%, a sharp increase from the 82% recorded in 2021. The region also witnessed a 6% improvement in the coverage of the measles vaccine, rising to 92% in 2022 from 86% in 2021.
  • Concerns: Despite achieving 93% coverage for its 22.5 million infants in 2022, India still accounts for 1.6 million unvaccinated and under-vaccinated children for DPT-3. The inequities in immunisation coverage can lead to accumulation of pockets of unvaccinated children, and may pose the risk of outbreaks of measles, diphtheria, and other vaccine-preventable diseases.
zaCfGdZOaLJYZBkKsZLsoJpg6jaYe7ET0ZxyakqAgpt ZVvSa hQHPC zj8HR7AAAwLVIpW1

Universal Immunization Programme (UIP): 

  • Launched as Expanded programme on Immunization in 1978, it was renamed a Universal Immunization programme in 1985 when it was expanded beyond urban areas. Since the launch of National Rural Health Mission in 2005, Universal Immunization Programme has always been an integral part of it.
  • Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is one of the largest public health programmes targeting close of 2.67 crore newborns and 2.9 crore pregnant women annually.
  • Under UIP, immunization is provided free of cost against 12 vaccine-preventable diseases:
    • Nationally against 11 diseases – Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, Rubella, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis, Rotavirus diarrhea, Hepatitis B, Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B and Pneumococcal Pneumonia. 
    • Sub-nationally against 1 disease – Japanese Encephalitis (JE vaccine is provided only in endemic districts)
  • Milestones: It is largely responsible for reduction of vaccine preventable diseases and, thus, contributing to decrease in India’s Under 5 mortality rate from 45 per 1000 live births in 2014 to 35 per 1000 live births in 2019. The two major milestones of UIP have been the elimination of polio in 2014 and maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination in 2015.

Mission Indradhanush: 

  • In 2014, the central government launched another major health mission called Mission Indradhanush which aims to cover all those children who are either unvaccinated or are partially vaccinated against vaccine-preventable diseases. Focus is given to pockets of low immunization coverage and hard-to-reach areas where the proportion of unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children is highest.
  • Initiative of: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  • The scheme seeks to drive towards 90% full immunisation coverage in India. Vaccination is being provided against eight vaccine-preventable diseases nationally, i.e. Diphtheria, Whooping Cough, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis and Hepatitis B and Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenza type B; and against Rotavirus Diarrhea and Japanese Encephalitis in selected states and districts. 

In 2017, the government introduced the Intensified Mission Indradhanush to significantly enhance the immunization campaign. A total of six phases of Mission Indradhanush have been completed covering 554 districts across the country.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

The maximum upload file size: 20 MB. You can upload: image, document, archive, other. Drop files here

Online Counselling
Table of Contents
Today's Current Affairs
This is default text for notification bar