Context: The G7 nations agreed to accelerate the phase-out of “domestic unabated coal power” and decarbonize their power systems by 2035 at the conclusion of their climate and environment ministers conference on Sunday in Sapporo, Japan.
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- The G7 states further stated that there is an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by around 43 per cent by 2030 and 60 per cent by 2035, aligned to 1.5 degrees in light of the most recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
The Group of 7 (G7) is an informal group of seven countries – the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom, the heads of which hold an annual summit with European Union and other invitees.India, Australia, South Korea and South Africa were invited to 47th G7 summit hosted by UK.
Together the G7 member countries represent 40% of global GDP and 10% of the world’s population.G7 has no legal existence, permanent secretariat or official members.Leaders of G7 countries meets annually and discusses emerging global issues.The presidency of G7 meetings is held by each of the 7 countries in turn, each year.
Condemning Russia’s attempts at ‘geopolitical coercion’
- In its communiqué, the G7 has condemned Russia’s “illegal unjustifiable, and unprovoked war of aggression against Ukraine, violation of the Charter of the United Nations (UN) and disregard to the impacts that its war is having on people worldwide’’.
Unprecedented triple global crisis
- The G7 has said that they are facing an “unprecedented triple global crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution that are mutually reinforcing and intrinsically linked, as well as an ongoing global energy crisis of unprecedented scale which has worsened economic and social disruptions, health threats and environmental damage.
Limitations of these discussion
- The group failed to say how it will increase its efforts to assist other countries scale up their energy transition and energy efficiency.
- Though G7 committed to decarbonising their power sector by 2035, they failed to agree to a proposal made by the UK and Canada to phase out coal by 2030. This proposal saw objections from Japan, the US and the European Union.
- Japan’s attempt to promote ammonia co-firing as a form of clean technology in the power sector domestically and in Asia via the Asia Zero Emission Community (AZEC) was degraded by the rest of the group.
How to address these challenges
- Multilateral cooperation can steadfast their commitment to the Paris Agreement, keeping a limit of 1.5°C global temperature rise within reach through scaled up action in this critical decade
- Full, swift and effective implementation of the historic Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) adopted at the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD-COP15) with its mission to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030
- And, to welcome the landmark international legally binding instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ).
About Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)
- In 2021, 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNCBD was held virtually in Kunming, China. The COP 15’s major goal was to create and accept a post-2020 “Global Biodiversity Framework” to replace and update the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (SPB) 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
- The first draft of the GBF was released in July 2021, containing 21 targets for 2030 and 4 Goals to achieve humanity “living in harmony with nature,” vision by 2050.
- Parties will reconvene in 2022 for further negotiations and to come to a final agreement on the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.
- The declaration called for immediate and comprehensive action in all areas of the global economy to reflect biodiversity concerns.
- More than a hundred countries, including India, have pledged to
- Work together to design, adopt, and implement a viable post-2020 global biodiversity framework.
- Reverse the current biodiversity loss.
- Ensure that biodiversity is on the mend by 2030 at the very latest.
- China established the Kunming Biodiversity Fund with a budget of around USD 230 million to fund programs that safeguard biodiversity in underdeveloped nations.
- It also praised many countries’ efforts and commitments to safeguard 30% of their land and sea regions by 2030 (30 by 30 objective), which is crucial for reversing a major cause of environmental degradation.
- Global Environment Facility, UNDP, and UNEP have pledged to expedite financial and technical assistance to developing countries to help them implement the Global Environment Facility.
About BBNJ Treaty also known as the “Treaty of the High Seas”
- The United Nations General Assembly decided, in 2015, to develop an international legally binding instrument under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction(BBNJ).
- This “BBNJ Treaty”, also known as the “Treaty of the High Seas”, is an international legally binding agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction, currently under negotiation at the United Nations.