Context: The World Health Organisation (WHO) approved the R21/MatrixM malaria vaccine, which has been jointly developed by the University of Oxford (Jenner Institute) and the Serum Institute of India.
Technology Used :
- The Vaccine was developed using Novavax’s adjuvant technology.
- Adjuvant technology
- An adjuvant is an ingredient used in some vaccines that helps create a stronger immune response in people receiving the vaccine. In other words, adjuvants help vaccines work better.
- Adjuvants help the immune system better recognize what’s in a vaccine and remember it longer, increasing the amount of time that a vaccine may offer protection.
- Adjuvanted vaccines can cause more local reactions (such as redness, swelling, and pain at the injection site) and more systemic reactions (such as fever, chills and body aches) than non-adjuvanted vaccines.
- Novavax’s adjuvant technology
- Matrix-M adjuvant comes from saponins, naturally occurring compounds in the bark of the Quillaja saponaria (Soapbark) tree, commonly found in Chile.
- Recommended after detailed scientific review by the WHO’s independent advisory body, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE), and the Malaria Policy Advisory Group (MPAG)
- Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) – The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization was established by the Director-General of the World Health Organization in 1999 to provide guidance on the work of WHO. SAGE is the principal advisory group to WHO for vaccines and immunization.
- SAGE is comprised of 15 members, who serve in their personal capacity and represent a broad range of disciplines encompassing many aspects of immunization and vaccines.
- Members are recruited and selected as acknowledged experts from around the world in the fields of epidemiology, public health, vaccinology, paediatrics, internal medicine, infectious diseases, immunology, drug regulation, programme management, immunization delivery, health-care administration, health economics, and vaccine safety.
- UNICEF, the Secretariat of the GAVI Alliance, and WHO Regional Offices participate as observers in SAGE meetings and deliberations.
- WHO also invites other observers to SAGE meetings, including representatives from WHO regional technical advisory groups, non-governmental organizations, international professional organizations, technical agencies, donor organizations and associations of manufacturers of vaccines and immunization technologies.
- Additional experts may be invited, as appropriate, to further contribute to specific agenda items.
- The Malaria Policy Advisory Group (MPAG) – Formerly called Malaria Policy Advisory Committee, It was established in 2011 to provide independent advice to WHO to enhance the control and elimination of malaria.
- It is an independent advisory group bringing together the world’s foremost experts on malaria, the MPAG provides strategic advice and technical input to WHO, and extends to all aspects of malaria control and elimination, as part of a transparent, responsive and credible process.
- The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP),
- The Welcome Trust
- The European Investment Bank (EIB).