National Sample Survey (NSS) Multiple Indicator Survey 2020-21 highlights the migration trends of Indians
What is migration?
The National Sample Survey defined migrants as those who had ever spent at least six straight months in a village/town/country different from their place of residence, i.e., where they were surveyed.
More on migration:
Migration is the geographic movement of people across a specified boundary various reasons especially social, economic, political reasons. Along with fertility and mortality, migration is a component of the population change. The term “in migration” and “out migration” are used for migration within a country and are comparable to the terms “immigration” and “emigration” used in international migration.
Patterns of Migration:
Internal migrant flows can be classified on the basis of origin and destination.
- Rural to Rural
- Rural to Urban
- Urban to Rural
- Urban to Urban
Factors for migration:
|Push Factors||Pull Factors|
|Lack of employmentCaste DiscriminationPoor availability of basic amenities e.g., Sanitation, HousingLack of Healthcare and educational facilitiesNatural Disasters e.g., Cyclones, Landslides||Better job opportunities and wagesHealthcare facilities e.g., Multi-specialty hospitalsUrban lifestyle – Liberty and Free societyQuality educationIndustrial ecosystem|
Status of Migration in India as per NSS 2020-21 Survey:
- One in three Urban Indians is a ‘migrant’ – but mostly intra-state.
- Among migrants, 55% have moved between villages – mostly women moving after marriage.
- Marriage is a larger driver of migration than jobs for women.
- Jobs are the biggest reason of migration from men.
- Himachal Pradesh and Telangana have the highest share of job-related migrants in their total urban male population.
- Delhi has the highest share of persons (21.3%) who have come from outside its territory.
Issues faced by migrants:
- Lack of social security and health benefits and poor implementation of minimum safety standards law
- Lack of portability of state-provided benefits especially food provided through the public distribution system (PDS)
- Poor implementation of protections under the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979 (ISMW Act)
- Lack of access to affordable housing and basic amenities in urban areas
Steps taken by Government for the welfare of Migrants:
- e-SHRAM portal, a National Database of the Unorganised Workers has been launched for registration of unorganised workers including migrant workers. The main objective of the e-SHRAM portal is to create a national database of unorganised workers seeded with Aadhaar. It is also to facilitate delivery of Social Security and welfare Schemes to such workers.
- Jharkhand’s first survey of migrants – aims to map the major sectors of engagement for migrants workers, find social security benefits and identify the health hazards.
- Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY) and Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY) launched in 2015 provide for life & disability cover due to natural or accidental death.
- Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana caters to the housing needs to eligible beneficiaries.
A favourable legislative and policy framework is the need of the hour to facilitate orderly, safe, and responsible migration and mobility of people (SDG 10.7).