Context: Central Pollution Control board has fined state-owned Indian Oil corporation and Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited for not installing vapour recovery system at their petrol pumps.
Central Pollution Control Board
- The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is a statutory organization which was constituted in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
- Further, CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
- Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air pollution and improvement of the quality of air.
- Plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution.
- Co-ordinate the activities of the State Board and resolve disputes among them.
- Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards, carry out and sponsor investigation and research relating to problems of water and air pollution, and for their prevention, control, or abatement.
- Plan and organise training of persons engaged in programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution.
- Organise through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution.
- Collect, compile, and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution and the measures devised for their effective prevention, control or abatement.
- Prepare manuals, codes and guidelines relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents as well as for stack gas cleaning devices, stacks and ducts.
- Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution and their prevention and control.
- Lay down, modify, or annul, in consultation with the State Governments concerned, the standards for stream or well, and lay down standards for the quality of air; and Perform such other function as may be prescribed by the Government of India.
Powers of Central Pollution Control Board
The following are the powers of the Central Pollution Control Board:
- Section 18 of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act gives the CPCB the authority to order the SPCB.
- If one of its directives is not followed, the Central Pollution Control Board does have the authority to carry out all the duties of a State Pollution Control Board.
- According to section 33A of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, the CPCB has the authority to issue directives that may restrict, close, or regulate any activity, business, or procedure or that may regulate the provision of power, fresh water, or other services.
Vapor recovery system
- Vapor recovery is the process of removing harmful vapor and fluid contaminants from crude products to improve the purity and prevent the release of toxic pollutants into the environment.
- Vapor removal is also done in chemical processing industries to recover unwanted vapors from storage units to keep the chemicals pure and safe for use and transport.
The typical VRU (Vapor recovery unit) consists of four principal components:
- Gas Compressor
- Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
- Switching device
Working of VRU
The primary function of a VRU system is to remove the vapors that collect inside sealed hydrocarbon tanks. The machine does this by gas compression and suction.
- The vapor recovery procedure involves the following steps:
- The rotary screw gas compressor sucks liquid molecules into the scrubber.
- The scrubber removes the water vapor, debris, and unwanted fluids from the tank.
- The recovered vapor is pumped into gas lines while the trapped liquids are channelled to the pipelines.