What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats.

Model Answer


India due to its large geographical expanse (shares land and maritime boundary with multiple countries), critical location (between Golden crescent and triangle), multi-ethnic society (insurgency) and exclusive growth trajectory (extremism) poses following internal security threats for India.


  • Terrorism, Extremism, and Neo-Terrorism: These threats are prominent in regions like Jammu and Kashmir (also with emergence of hybrid terrorism), the resurgence of the Khalistan movement (separatist movement) and left-wing extremism affecting central and peninsular part of India.
  • Insurgency and Illegal Migration: Separatist movements, sub-national aspirations, and demands for autonomy contribute to insurgency, especially in the Northeastern states, where porous borders also facilitate illegal migration.
  • Organized Crime: Criminal networks exploit law and order gaps, engaging in activities like drug trade, human trafficking, and money laundering, often with links to terrorism, complicating security efforts.
  • Social Media: Radicalization through social media and the misuse of digital platforms for political gains can impact law and order and overall security.
  • Maritime Security: India’s extensive coastline and strategic location expose it to maritime security threats, including piracy and smuggling.
  • Cybercrime and Multiverse: The rise of cybercrime poses a significant security challenge, as the digital realm becomes a new frontier for warfare and disruption.
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To respond to the various security threats, India has established and employs a range of intelligence and security forces:

  • IB (Intelligence Bureau) and R&AW (Research and Analysis Wing): These agencies gather intelligence within India and conduct counterintelligence and counter-terrorism operations.
  • National Investigating Agency (NIA) Act: NIA conducts thorough investigations and operates NIA courts for speedy trials of terrorism-related cases.
  • NATGRID (National Intelligence Grid): NATGRID collects ground-level information and collates it in an easily accessible manner for relevant agencies.
  • Coastal and Maritime Security: The National Committee for Strengthening Maritime and Coastal Security (NCSMCS), led by the Cabinet Secretary, ensures robust coastal and maritime security measures.
  • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI): CBI handles complex economic and conventional crimes, often collaborating internationally to combat transnational crime.
  • National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO): NTRO is a technical intelligence agency under the National Security Advisor in the Prime Minister’s Office, specializing in technical surveillance and intelligence.
  • National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC): NCIIPC is a 24×7 mechanism focused on safeguarding critical information infrastructure from cyber threats.
  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In): CERT-In coordinates crisis management efforts and acts as a nodal agency for addressing cyber threats effectively.


These agencies collectively contribute to India’s efforts to address and mitigate a wide range of internal and external security challenges.

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