Conference of Parties (COP)
- The COP is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention. All States that are Parties to the Convention are represented at the COP, at which they review the implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention, including institutional and administrative arrangements.
Conference of Parties serving as meeting of Parties to Kyoto Protocol (CMP)
- The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
- All States that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol are represented at the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP), while States that are not Parties participate as observers.
- The CMP oversees the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and takes decisions to promote its effective implementation.
Conference of Parties serving as meeting of Parties to Paris Agreement (CMA)
- The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.
- All States that are Parties to the Paris Agreement are represented at the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA), while States that are not Parties participate as observers.
- The CMA oversees the implementation of the Paris Agreement and takes decisions to promote its effective implementation.
Bureau of the COP, CMP & CMA
- The Bureau supports the work of the governing bodies through the provision of advice and guidance regarding the ongoing work under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol, and the Paris Agreement, the organization of their sessions and the operation of the secretariat. The Bureau serves during the sessions and between sessions.
- The Bureau consists of 11 officers, the President, seven Vice-Presidents, the Chairs of the SBSTA and the SBI and the Rapporteur, elected from representatives of Parties nominated by each of the five United Nations regional groups and Small Island Developing States.
- UNFCCC secretariat provides organizational support and technical expertise to the UNFCCC negotiations and institutions and facilitates the flow of authoritative information on the implementation of the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
- This includes the development and effective implementation of innovative approaches to mitigate climate change and drive sustainable development.
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)
- Assists governing bodies through timely information and advice on scientific and technological matters as they relate to the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
- In addition, the SBSTA cooperates with relevant international organizations on scientific, technological and methodological questions.
Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI)
- Assists the governing bodies in the assessment and review of the implementation of the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
- In addition, the SBI is the body that considers the biennial work programs for the secretariat, which provide the strategic direction on how the secretariat can best serve the Parties and the UNFCCC process towards greater ambition of climate change action and support that is fully commensurate with the objectives of the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
Adaptation Committee (AC)
- The Adaptation Committee was established by the COP at its sixteenth session as part of the Cancun Agreements to promote the implementation of enhanced action on adaptation coherently under the Convention. The Adaptation Committee also serves the Paris Agreement.
Adaptation Fund Board (AFB)
- The AFB supervises and manages the Adaptation Fund and is fully accountable to the CMP. The Adaptation Fund was established to finance concrete adaptation projects and programs in developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.
- The Adaptation Fund is financed by a 2 percent share of the proceeds from certified emission reductions issued by the Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism and from other sources of funding. The Adaptation Fund also serves the Paris Agreement.
Advisory Board of Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN)
- As the operational arm of the Technology Mechanism, the CTCN stimulates technology cooperation to enhance the development and transfer of technologies and to assist developing country Parties at their request.
- The Advisory Board gives guidance to the CTCN on how to prioritize requests from developing countries and, in general, it monitors, assesses and evaluates the performance of the CTCN.
Clean Development Mechanism
Defined in Article 12 of Kyoto Protocol, allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one ton of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.
- The functions of the Compliance Committee of the Kyoto Protocol are to provide advice and assistance to Parties in implementing the Kyoto Protocol, promote compliance by Parties with their commitments and determine cases of non-compliance and apply consequences in cases where Parties are not complying with their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
Executive Committee of Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss & Damage
- The Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism was established by the COP to guide the implementation of the functions of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage.
- The Warsaw International Mechanism is anchored in the Paris Agreement by its Article 8.
Green Climate Fund (GCF)
- GCF is an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention and is accountable to and functions under the guidance of the COP.
- It is governed by a Board comprising 24 members (with equal numbers from developed and developing country Parties) and is intended to be the main fund for global climate change finance in the context of mobilizing USD 100 billion by 2020. The GCF, as an entity entrusted with the operation of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention, also serves the Paris Agreement.
Standing Committee on Finance (SCF)
- The mandate of the Standing Committee on Finance is to assist the COP in exercising its functions with respect to the financial mechanism of the Convention in terms of the following: improving coherence and coordination in the delivery of climate change financing; rationalization of the financial mechanism; mobilization of financial resources; and measurement, reporting and verification of support provided to developing country Parties. The SCF also serves the Paris Agreement.
Technology Executive Committee (TEC)
- COP established a Technology Mechanism to facilitate the implementation of enhanced actions on technology development and transfer to support action on mitigation and adaptation to achieve the full implementation of the Convention.
- The Technology Mechanism comprises the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN).
- In accordance with Article 10 of the Paris Agreement, the Technology Mechanism shall also serve the Paris Agreement under the guidance of the CMA.
- As the policy arm of the Technology Mechanism, the TEC undertakes analysis and provides recommendations on policies that can accelerate the development and transfer of low-emission and climate resilient technologies.
Special Climate Change Fund
- It was established to finance activities, programs and measures relating to climate change, that are complementary to those supported by other funding mechanism for the implementation of the Convention.
- The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has been entrusted to operate the SCCF. The SCCF, administered by the GEF, also serves the Paris Agreement.
Least Developed Countries Fund
- The COP established the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) to support the Least Developed Country Parties (LDCs) work program and assist LDCs carry out, inter alia, the preparation and implementation of national adaptation programs of action (NAPAs).
- The Global Environment Facility (GEF) has been entrusted to operate the LDCF. The LDCF, administered by the GEF, also serves the Paris Agreement.
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
- It was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
- The GEF is a unique partnership of 18 agencies — including United Nations agencies, multilateral development banks, national entities and international NGOs — working with 183 countries to address the world’s most challenging environmental issues.
- The GEF has a large network of civil society organizations, works closely with the private sector around the world, and receives continuous inputs from an independent evaluation office and a world-class scientific panel.
- It is a financial mechanism for five major international environmental conventions: the Minamata Convention on Mercury, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD), the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
- The GEF Trust Fund was established to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems. Funds are available to developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet the objectives of the international environmental conventions and agreements.
- The World Bank serves as the GEF Trustee, administering the GEF Trust Fund (contributions by donors). The Trustee helps mobilize GEF resources; disburses funds to GEF Agencies; prepares financial reports on investments and use of resources; and monitors application of budgetary and project funds. The Trustee creates periodic reports that contain an array of fund-specific financial information.