Discuss global warming and mention its effects on the global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming, in light of the Kyoto Protocol, 1997.

Sample Answer


Incontrovertible evidence now exists that demonstrates that human influence has warmed the atmosphere, ocean and land. Recent changes across the climate system are unprecedented over many thousands of years. According to IPCC Global surface temperatures are now higher by 1.070C over the pre-industrial level. This is understood as “Global Warming”


Effects of Global warming on Climate:

  • Nearly all land areas are seeing more hot days and heat waves; 2020 was one of the hottest years on record.
  • More severe and frequent storms.
  • Increasing instances of extreme weather events such as heat waves

The Kyoto Protocol established three different mechanisms to enable countries additional ways to meet their emission-limitation target. The three mechanisms are:

  • The International Emissions Trading mechanism: Countries that have excess emission units permitted to them but not used can engage in carbon trading and sell these units to countries over their target.
  • The Clean Development mechanism: Countries with emission reducing or limiting commitments may implement emission-reducing projects in developing countries to earn certified emission reduction credits.
  • The Joint Implementation mechanism: Countries with emission reducing or limiting commitments to earn emission reducing units from a project in another party.


In 2015, at the sustainable development summit held in Paris, all UNFCCC participants signed yet another pact, the Paris Climate Agreement, which effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol.

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