The Ministry of Education, Government of India has released All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2020-2021.
The Ministry has been conducting All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) since 2011, covering all higher educational institutions located in Indian Territory and imparting higher education in the country.
The survey collects detailed information on different parameters such as student enrolment, teacher’s data, infrastructural information, financial information etc.
Key findings of the survey: The total enrolment in higher education has increased to nearly 4.14 crore in 2020-21 from 3.85 crore in 2019-20. Since 2014-15, there has been an increase of around 72 Lakh in the enrolment (21%).
Higher education’s Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) has also surpassed 27.3%. The GER measures the proportion of adults between the ages of 18 and 23 who are enrolled in college. It was determined using data from the 2011 Census.The Female enrolment has increased to 2.01 crore from 1.88 crore in 2019-20.
There has been an increase of around 44 Lakh (28%) since 2014-15.
Female GER has overtaken Male GER since 2017-18. Gender Parity Index (GPI), the ratio of female GER to male GER, has increased from 1 in 2017-18 to 1.05 in 2020-21.
There has been a noticeable increase in the enrolment of students from Scheduled Caste (SC), Scheduled Tribe (ST), and Other Backward Classes (OBC) in higher education institutions between 2014–15 and 2020–21.
ST students have seen the largest growth, with a nearly 47% increase. Government universities constitute contribute 73.1% of total enrolment of students. Whereas private universities account for only 26.3% of the total enrolment.
The University Grant Commission (UGC) has unveiled draft norms to allow foreign universities to set up campuses in India. The draft rules are intended to regulate the entry and operations of Foreign Universities to conduct various degrees, diplomas and certificate programmes.
The draft regulations provided foreign universities intended to setup in India with significant freedom in terms of fee structure, recruiting staff, designing courses and awarding degrees, diplomas and certificates. This was done, in line with National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, to promote internationalisation of the higher education in India.
Internationalisation of Higher Education:
Internationalisation of higher education promotes sharing of best academic and research practices through interactions between diverse education systems, and helps in developing global citizens through mobility of students and scholars. In Indian context, this aspect of internationalisation of higher education is as old as education itself. Ancient universities like Takshashila and Nalanda attracted many scholars from various parts of the globe. In modern times, globalisation gave opportunities to attract international students, academics and funding and many Indian Higher Education Institutions are now committed to increase their global outreach.
Need for Internationalisation of Higher education in India:
- Improve global rankings: Though few Indian educational institutions are appearing in world rankings of universities, the score for “Internationalisation” among all the indicators is found to be relatively poor for them. Thus, Internationalisation of Higher Education may act as the catalyst to spur many Indian universities to improve their global rankings.
- Potential for foreign investment: There is exponential growth in number of students enrolled in higher education outside their country and this trend is likely to continue.
However, as on December 2020, India had more than 10 Lakhs students studying abroad (MEA 2021). whereas, number for foreign students coming to India for the purpose of higher education as per All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2019-2020, is around 50,000.
- Quality upgradation: systematic internationalisation of higher education will result in increased global outreach, knowledge acquisition, development of internationally relevant curricular framework and sharing of teaching-learning-research best practices.
In order to promote internationalization of higher education in India, the Government of India has taken several initiatives. These include:
- Establishment of the National Commission for Higher Education and Research (NCHER) which aims to facilitate and coordinate the internationalization of higher education in India.
- Launch of the Study in India programme, which seeks to attract more foreign students to Indian universities.
- Launch of several international scholarships, such as the Prime Minister’s Scholarship Scheme and the Central Sector Scheme of Scholarship for Foreign Students, to attract students from abroad.