What were the major technological changes introduced during the Sultanate period? How did those technological changes influence the Indian society?

Sample Answer


Advent of Turks, infused India with new ideas in almost every field including technology and science.


Technological Changes in Various Fields

  • Agriculture:
    • In irrigation, Persian Wheel (Saqia) was introduced.
    • Sultans like Muhammad Bin Tughlaq also established many model farms to disseminate good agricultural techniques.
    • Firoz Shah Tughlaq introduced many new techniques in horticulture, he founded nearly 1200 fruit gardens.
  • Trade and Craft:
    • In cotton cloth production, Charkha and carder’s bow were introduced, increasing textile production. Rangsazi, coloring of cloth, became a prominent profession. Sultans promoted technique sericulture.
    • Paper technology became important, as use of paper became important. Apart from Delhi Sultans, regional rulers like Zain-ul-Abedin promoted bookbinding technique.
    • Glass technique improved due to influence from Middle East. Sultans promoted new techniques in leather production, carpet and shawls production, stone polishing.
  • Military Technique:
    • Turks brought better horse-riding technique. Also, the Turkish archers used a bow, called Navik, with entirely new technique.
  • Art and Architecture:
    • Sultanate period saw the introduction of scientific methods of building arches and domes. A good example is Alai Darwaja constructed by Allauddin Khilji.
    • Compared to Indian style of using stones in buildings, Muslims used bricks and gypsum as mortar or binding material in construction technique.

Impact on Indian Society:

  • Agricultural production increased because of new techniques and surplus production which could sustain urbanization. Most historians believe that 3 rd  Phase of urbanization in India came with the advent of Turks.
  • Economic activities became very dynamic and diverse and cotton cloth production became much better.
  • New architectural styles emerged in form of Indo-Islamic architecture by confluence of the Indian and Islamic architectural techniques.


    The new techniques introduced in Sultanate time had deep and permanent impact on society reflecting that Sultanate period was period of dynamism.

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