What are the maritime security challenges in India? Discuss the organizational, technical and procedural initiatives taken to improve the maritime security.

Sample Answer


Owing to a 7000 km long maritime border, Maritime Security is imperative to India’s National Security.


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Challenges in Maritime border Management  

  • Less focus on Maritime security. 
  • Coordination issues due to – Fragmented Approach & Overlapping jurisdiction between State Police, Indian Coast Guards and Navy. 
  • Unsettled maritime borders ex –  Pakistan.
  • Uncooperative Behaviour by neighbouring countries – Ex – Sri Lanka allowing Chinese Ship. 

Steps Taken to ensure Maritime Security 


  • The National Committee for Strengthening Maritime and Coastal Security (NCSMCS) HEADED BY CABINET SECRETARY is a national-level forum for maritime and coastal security. 
  • The Indian Navy, Indian Coast Guard and State Marine Police, as a three tiered cover. 

Participation in Regional groupings: 

  • IORA – Indian Ocean Rim Association 
  • IONS – Indian Ocean Naval Symposium
  • IOC – Indian Ocean commission 


  • Indigenous capacity building: 
    • INS Arihant (Nuclear submarine)
    • INS Vikrant (Aircraft carrier)
    • Achieved Nuclear triad 
    • Electronic – Coastal Surveillance Network (CSN). 
  • Procedural 
    • Post 26/11 – establishment of mechanisms for inter-agency coordination. 
    • State-wise Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for inter-agency coordination 
    • Coastal Security Exercises by Indian Navy and Indian Coast Guard


There is a need for wholistic approach focussing on Geo-Political engagement, Capacity building along with the strengthening of the Security forces.

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