What are the different elements of cyber security? Keeping in view the challenges in cyber security, examine the extent to which India has successfully developed a comprehensive National Cyber Security Strategy.

Sample Answer


Besides conventional security threats, India faces emerging threat of Cyber warfare being deployed by external state and non-state actors to attack civilian, Military and strategic establishments.


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Challenges in Cyber Security

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India’s national cyber security strategy 

  • India’s preparedness focuses on handling all the aspects of Cyber Security – 
    • Section 66F of ITA: deals with the issue of cyber terrorism. 
    • National Cyber Security Policy 2013 – For skilling 5 lakh professionals in cybersecurity
    • National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC): Established to secure India’s critical information infrastructure. 
    • CERT-IN: To respond to computer security incidents, report on vulnerabilities and promote effective IT security practices throughout the country.
    • Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative:  launched in 2018 – to spread awareness about cybercrimes and capacity building of Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) and frontline IT staff across all government departments.
    • National Cyber Coordination Centre (NCCC): to generate situational awareness of existing and potential cyber security threats and enable timely information sharing for proactive, preventive and protective actions by individual entities. 

Despite elaborate strategy challenges in strategy remain 

  • Difficult to track attacks from extra Territorial locations. 
  • Difficulty in International Coordination.
  • India is not a member of the Budapest convention on cyber security. 
  • Lack of private sector participation in cyber security framework. 
  • Shortage of Skilled Professionals
  • IT Act 2002 and National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 are outdated and not well-equipped enough to handle technologically advanced cybercrimes. 
  • Lack of comprehensive insurance to handle cyber security attacks.
  • Lack of investments in emerging technology to handle cyber security incidents – Big Data, AI etc. 
  • Government departments working outdated software.


Thus there is need to update existing framework in line with the emerging threats by Earmarking Funds, enhancing awareness, Greater Private Sector Participation, Global Collaboration, Updating of IT act and CSP 2013 and focussing on Human resources development.

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