Solved Economy Mains Previous year question with solution created by highly skilled faculty and team of Rau’s IAS. Our solutions are comprehensive and easy to understand, and will help you prepare for the UPSC exam effectively.
- Faster economic growth requires increased share of the manufacturing sector in GDP, particularly of MSMEs. Comment on the present policies of the Government in this regard.
- What is the status of digitalization in the Indian economy? Examine the problems faced in this regard and suggest improvements.
- How does e-Technology help farmers in production and marketing of agricultural produce? Explain it.
- State the objectives and measures of land reforms in India. Discuss how land ceiling policy on landholding can be considered as an effective reform under economic criteria.
- Most of the unemployment in India is structural in nature. Examine the methodology adopted to compute unemployment in the country and suggest improvements.
- Distinguish between ‘care economy’ and ‘monetized economy’. How can care economy be brought into monetized economy through women empowerment?
- Explain the changes in cropping pattern in India in the context of changes in consumption pattern and marketing conditions.
- What are the direct and indirect subsidies provided to farm sector in India? Discuss the issues raised by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in relation to agricultural subsidies.
- Why is Public Private Partnership (PPP) required in infrastructural projects? Examine the role of PPP model in the redevelopment of Railway Stations in India.
- Is inclusive growth possible under market economy? State the significance of financial inclusion in achieving economic growth in India.
- What are the major challenges of Public Distribution System (PDS) in India? How can it be made effective and transparent?
- Elaborate the scope and significance of the food processing industry in India.
- “Economic growth in the recent past has been led by increase in labour productivity.” Explain this statement. Suggest the growth pattern that will lead to creation of more jobs without compromising labour productivity.
- Do you think India will meet 50 percent of its energy needs from renewable energy by 2030? Justify your answer. How will the shift of subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables help achieve the above objectives? Explain.
- What are main bottlenecks in upstream and downstream process of marketing of agricultural products in India?
- What is Integrated Farming System? How is it helpful to small and marginal farmers in India?
- Explain the difference between computing methodology of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) before the year 2015 and after the year 2015.
- How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India’s water crisis?
- Distinguish between Capital Budget and Revenue Budget. Explain the components of both these Budgets.
- How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers?
- Do you agree that the Indian economy has recently experienced V-shaped recovery? Give reasons in support of your answer.
- “Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth.” Discuss in the light of India’s experience.
- What are the salient features of the National Food Security Act, ZUL6 c now has the Food Security Bill helped in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India?
- What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification?
- Explain intra-generational and inter-generational issues of equity from the perspective of inclusive growth and sustainable development.
- Define potential GDP and explain its determinants. What are the factors that have been inhibiting India from realizing its potential GDP?
- What are the main constraints in transport and marketing of agricultural produce in India?
- What are the challenges and opportunities of food processing sector in the country? How can income of the farmers be substantially increased by encouraging food processing?
- Explain the meaning of investment in an economy in terms of capital formation. Discuss the factors to be considered while designing a concession agreement between a public entity and a private entity.
- Explain the rationale behind the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act of 2017. How has COVID-19 impacted the GST compensation fund and created new federal tensions?
- Enumerate the indirect taxes which have been subsumed in the goods and services tax (GST) in India. Also, comment on the revenue implications of the GST introduced in India since July 2017.
- Do you agree with the view that steady GDP growth and low inflation have left the Indian economy in good shape? Give reasons in support of your arguments.
- How far is Integrated Farming System (IFS) helpful in sustaining agricultural production?
- Elaborate the impact of National Watershed Project in increasing agricultural production from water-stressed areas.
- How was India benefitted from the contributions of Sir M. Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan in the fields of water engineering and agricultural science respectively?
- It is argued that the strategy of inclusive growth is intended to meet the objectives of inclusiveness and sustainability together. Comment on this statement.
- The public expenditure management is a challenge to the Government of India in context of budget making during the post liberalization period. Clarify it.
- What are the reformative steps taken by the Government to make food grain distribution system more effective?
- Elaborate the policy taken by the Government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector.
- “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”.Comment on the progress made in India in this regard.
- Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long term Capital Gains Tax (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019.
- What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap?
- Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables and food items. How do they eliminate number of intermediaries?
- How are the principles followed by NITI Aayog different from those followed by the erstwhile planning commission in India?
- How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India?
- Assess the role of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in boosting the production, productivity and income of horticulture farms. How far has it succeeded in increasing the income of farmers?
- How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption.
- Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential?
- Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports rather than capital-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports.
- Examine the developments of Airports in India through Joint Ventures under Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard.
- Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?
- What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers?
- One of the intended objectives of Union Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyse the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective.
- “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product (GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes in Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate?
- What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyze and suggest measures for inclusive growth.
- What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilize the yield of the crop in the system? (Answer in 250 words)
- How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers?
- How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country?
- Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?
- Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poor section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.
- What are ‘Smart Cities’? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for ’Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission.
- Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MOUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India.
- Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges.
- Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development. Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India.
- Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY).
- The nature of economic growth in India in recent times is often described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer.
- Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non-farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sector in India.
- In view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non-viable for a majority of farmers, should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture ? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.
- How can the ‘Digital India’ programme help farmers to improve farm productivity and income ? What steps has the Government taken in this regard ?
- In what way could replacement of price subsidy with Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India ? Discuss.
- What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in developing the food processing industry in India ? Can e-commerce help in overcoming these bottlenecks?
- Craze for gold in Indians has led to a surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of the Gold Monetization Scheme.
- “Success of ‘Make in India’ programme depends on the success of ‘Skill India’ programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments.
- To what factors can the recent dramatic fall in equipment costs and tariff of solar energy be attributed ? What implications does the trend have for the thermal power producers and the related industry ?
- There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognizing this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs requires augmentation. Discuss the issues plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.
- Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?
- While we found India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability. What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.
- The right to fair compensation and transparency land acquisition, rehabilitation and resettlement act, 2013 has come into effect from 1 January 2014. What implication would it have on industrialization and agriculture in India?
- Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages shortsightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism driving inclusive growth in India? Discuss.
- Foreign direct investment in the defence sector is now set to be liberalized. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?
- Explain how private public partnership agreements, in longer gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsuitable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised?
- National urban transport policy emphasizes on moving people instead of moving vehicles. Discuss critically the success of various strategies of the government in this regard.
- There is also a point of view that agriculture produce market committees (APMCs) set up under the state acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine.
- “In the villages itself no form of credit organisation will be suitable except the cooperative society.” – All Indian rural credit survey. Discuss this statement in the background of agriculture finance in India. What constrain and challenges do financial institutions face supplying agricultural finances? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?
- With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new companies bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the bill and their implications.
- What are the reasons for introduction of Fiscal responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness.
- What is meaning of the term tax-expenditure? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences budgetary policies of the government.
- Food security bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO
- What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and state levels? Critically analyze the agriculture subsidy regime with the reference to the distortions created by it.
- India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement.
- Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indian. Are they competing with the MNCs satisfactorily?
- Establish the relationship between land reform, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in Indian Economy. Discussion the difficulty in designing and implementation of the agriculture friendly land reforms in India.
- Discuss the impact of FDI entry into multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy.
- Though India allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in what is called multi brand retail through joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI ,even after a year, has not picket up. Discuss the reasons.
- Discuss the rationale for introducing Good and services tax in India. Bring out critically the reasons for delay in roll out for its regime.
- Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problems of conventional energy.
- Adaptation of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free from criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model.