Space Debris, Kessler Syndrome and IS4OM

  • ISRO System for Safe and Sustainable Operation 
  • It is a control center set up in Bangalore to trace, track, deflect and remove space debris harmful to space assets.
  • It is aimed at improving India’s Space Situational Awareness & Management (SSAM) in view of increasing space debris

Space Debris and Kessler Syndrome

  • Space debris is defined as any non-functional man-made object that could pose the risk of unintended collision to operational spacecraft in Earth orbit or those transiting that region to or from an interplanetary mission.
  • As the number and density of spacecraft in orbit increase so does the risk of collision.
  • The runaway effect if debris from one collision causing another, generating more debris and further collisions is called the Kessler Syndrome.


  • India’s 1st dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory.
  • Studies outer space objects in X-ray, limited optical and UV spectrum.
  • The 1500-odd kg satellite is launched into a 650 km orbit.

Main Objectives

  • To estimate magnetic field of neutron stars
  • Study of binary star system
  • Study of regions where stars are born


  • ExpoSAT is a multi-wavelength space observatory to study the deep space.
  • It is planned as the successor to Astrosat.
  • It will explore X-ray sources in the universe.
  • It will study neutron stars, supernova remnants, pulsars, black holes in multiple wavelengths.


  • Also called Mars Orbiter Mission, it is India’s 1st interplanetary mission.
  • Main Objective: Exploration of Martian surface features, morphology, mineralogy and atmosphere

Important payloads

  • Lyman-Alpha Photometer: Measures the deuterium and hydrogen concentration in the upper atmosphere to estimate the water loss to outer space.
  • Methane Sensor: To measure methane in Martian atmosphere and also to map its sources.
  • Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer: To study the composition and mineralogy of Martian surface by creating a temperature map by recording the emission radiation.

Note: ISRO is also planning a Lander mission to Mars under Mangalyaan-2 by 2024. The main objective is to study the surface geology, magnetic fields and interplanetary dust.


  • ISRO’s planned orbiter to Venus.
  • Main goals are to study
  • atmosphere and its chemistry
  • Surface and sub-surface features
  • Interaction of the planet with solar radiation

About Venus

  • Venus has a solid surface by virtue of being one of the 3 inner planets besides Mercury and Earth.
  • It is nearly the same size of the earth.
  • The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 95% carbon dioxide and thus high greenhouse effect.
  • Sulfur compounds make up about 0.015% due to volcanic eruptions and thus hot Sulfuric acid clouds that envelop Venus.
  • About 80% of the surface of Venus is composed of flat plains of volcanic origin.
  • Unusual thing about Venus is that its rotation period is longer than its orbital period. (Rotation on its own axis – 243 days, Orbital period around the sun – 224.7 days)
  • It is the only planet which has retrograde rotation, meaning it spins in the direction opposite to the direction in which it orbits the Sun. (Sun would rise in west and set in east on Venus)
  • Due to slow rotation of Venus it has no global magnetic field. (earth’s magnetic field is due to rotation of iron core)
Online Counselling
Table of Contents