Quantum Dots

  • Quantum dots are like jails for electrons. Imagine a tiny “box” in which you can trap electrons. Once you do this you can harness the quantum effects that electrons exhibit.
  • Example: Electrons can absorb energy and emit light of a certain colour, depending on the size of the quantum dot.
  • Quantum dots are particles that are nanosized in all three dimensions. They behave like artificial atoms, as they can have a fixed number of electrons in a confined space, leading to unique properties that are size-dependent. One of the key areas of interest is their interaction with light, which has led to the development of the field of nanophotonics.

Application of Quantum Dots

    • Older TV made of LCD can emit lights of colours only in a certain band. Only 1/3rd of what humans can sense.
    • QLEDs have changed this as they are capable of emitting all colours depending on their size. Thus QLED TVs provide high-definition, brighter and more colorful displays.
  • Cancer treatment to become more targeted
    • Quantum dots exhibit specific opto-electronic properties. They can be used for fluorescence imaging where quantum dots are injected in the body which when encounters a cancer cell attaches to it. When you shine a light of certain frequency it lights up and doctors can exactly target these cells.
    • Quantum dots can also be designed to release drugs in response to a certain trigger like pH or temperature.
  • Solar cells: With its opto-electronic property, Q-dots are used in solar cells with higher efficiency.
  • Bio-sensors: Q-dot sensors can detect the presence of pathogens in food or water, or monitor the levels of pollutants in the environment.
  • Biomedical imaging: Q-dot can revolutionise fluorescence imaging, MRI, and CT scans with its high sensitivity.
  • Photonics: Q-dot are best suited for photonics-based computing capable of achieving high speeds.
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