Table of Contents

What is Graphene?

  • Graphene is an example of nanosheet and is an example of two-dimensional nano-material. Graphite (in your pencil) is made of layers and layers each with rings of 6 carbon atoms. If you take one layer from this you have graphene.
  • It is one-atom thick sheet of carbon, thinnest of all material.
  • CNT is just rolled up graphene and fullerene is graphene shaped into sphere. Thus, it is called mother of all carbon-based system.
image 61


  • Inert
  • Mechanical strength
  • It is semi-metallic. (it can change into metal)
  • Can sustain high temperature
  • Electrons move very fast in graphene as if they have no mass. Can be used in ultra-fast transistors. Graphene cannot be used as semiconductor as there is no gap between valence and conducting band.
  • Graphene nanotechnology is common in flexible electronics suitable for wearables.
  • Smart monitors to measure heart rate, body temperature, sweat, saliva etc.
  • Graphene is ideal for photonics and opto-electronics.
  • Could be used in solar cells, LEDs, touch screens, photo-detectors and lasers.
  • Terahertz radiation that use microwaves frequencies penetrates many materials except metals. This is used for biomedical imagery, security, remote sensing and spectroscopy. However, there are reports that terahertz radiation damage skin cells. Graphene with their strength may be used for terahertz radiation antenna.


  • If we Inject hydrogen into graphene and it becomes insulator called graphane. This could have variety of applications including:
    • The ability to reduce the scattering of electrons make it a promising material for electronic devices such as transistors and capacitors.
    • It can store hydrogen gas efficiently, making it a potential material for fuel-cell run electric vehicles.
    • Its nanoporous structure can be used to create filters for water purification and desalination plants.
    • With high surface area and ability to interact with gases make it a potential material for gas sensors.
    • It biocompatibility and ability to inhibit bacterial growth make it a potential material for medical implants and drug delivery systems.
Online Counselling

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Today's Current Affairs
This is default text for notification bar