Naxalism is a social, economic and development issues manifesting as a violent internal security threat. In this context, discuss the emerging issues and suggest a multilayered strategy to tackle the menace of Naxalism.

Sample Answer


Naxalism has its root in the Maoist ideology, which projects Violent overthrowing of Indian state as a solution to the social, economic developmental deprivation of the tribal population in the central and the Eastern part of India .


Social Factors – Denial of dignity and untouchability, Poor implementation of laws -protection of civil rights and abolition of bonded labour etc. 

Economic – Disruption of traditional occupations and Rights, lack of alternative work opportunities. 


  • Eviction and displacements by irrigation and power projects without adequate rehabilitation.
  • Dysfunctional Local governmental structures. 

Emerging Issues 

  • Naxal violence dropped by 77 per cent between 2009 and 2021.  
  • Deaths of security force personnel has more than doubled in Chhattisgarh in the past three years. 
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  • Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand remain the worst affected states. 
  • Violence still reported from 30 districts in central India accounting 88% of the LWE violence. 
  • Spread of ideology in Urban Areas. 
  • Threats of attacks in Urban areas in future. 

Strategy to tackle Naxalism

  • National Policy and Action Plan adopts an integrated, holistic and multi-pronged strategy.
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Security Measures 

  • Ban on CPI(Maoist. 
  • Strengthening the Intelligence Mechanism Between centre and states through Multi Agency Centre (MAC). 
  • Better Inter-State coordination.
  • SOP by MHA to Tackle the problem of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). 
  • Deployment of the Central Armed Police Forces

Developmental Measures 

  • Civic Action Programme (CAP): Financial grants to the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) to undertake various Civic Action Programmes. 
  • Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy
  • Better implementation of FRA 2006 and PESA 1996 for recognising tradition rights of Tribals.


What needs to be done 

  • Tribals be treated as alienated sections of society.
  • Police action over a long period is counterproductive
  • Negotiations and just implementation of laws and programmes for social justice.
  • Development initiatives suitable to local conditions 
  • Democratic methods of conflict resolution. 

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