Naxalism has its root in the Maoist ideology, which projects Violent overthrowing of Indian state as a solution to the social, economic developmental deprivation of the tribal population in the central and the Eastern part of India .
Social Factors – Denial of dignity and untouchability, Poor implementation of laws -protection of civil rights and abolition of bonded labour etc.
Economic – Disruption of traditional occupations and Rights, lack of alternative work opportunities.
- Eviction and displacements by irrigation and power projects without adequate rehabilitation.
- Dysfunctional Local governmental structures.
- Naxal violence dropped by 77 per cent between 2009 and 2021.
- Deaths of security force personnel has more than doubled in Chhattisgarh in the past three years.
- Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand remain the worst affected states.
- Violence still reported from 30 districts in central India accounting 88% of the LWE violence.
- Spread of ideology in Urban Areas.
- Threats of attacks in Urban areas in future.
Strategy to tackle Naxalism
- National Policy and Action Plan adopts an integrated, holistic and multi-pronged strategy.
- Ban on CPI(Maoist.
- Strengthening the Intelligence Mechanism Between centre and states through Multi Agency Centre (MAC).
- Better Inter-State coordination.
- SOP by MHA to Tackle the problem of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs).
- Deployment of the Central Armed Police Forces
- Civic Action Programme (CAP): Financial grants to the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) to undertake various Civic Action Programmes.
- Surrender and Rehabilitation Policy
- Better implementation of FRA 2006 and PESA 1996 for recognising tradition rights of Tribals.
What needs to be done
- Tribals be treated as alienated sections of society.
- Police action over a long period is counterproductive.
- Negotiations and just implementation of laws and programmes for social justice.
- Development initiatives suitable to local conditions
- Democratic methods of conflict resolution.