Vijayanagar Empire

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Sources of Vijayanagar Empire

  • Srirangam Copper plates of Devaraya 2 provide the genealogy and achievements of VN Empire.
  • Nicolo Conti, Venetian traveller visited the court of Devaraya 1 and gave an account of VN Empire.
  • Abdur Razzaq, Persian traveler stayed at the court of Zamorin at Calicut and described the wealth and life of VN Empire.
  • Domingo Paes, and Barbosa, Portuguese travellers visited the court of Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagar.
  • Caesar Frederick,a Italian traveller visited Vijayanagar in 1567-68AD under the reign of Sadashiva Raya
  • Ruins of Hampi were discovered by British engineer Colonel Colin Mackenzie.

Four Dynasties- Sangam, Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu ruled Vijayanagar from AD 1336 to 1672. While historians use the term Vijayanagar Empire, contemporaries described it as Karnataka Samrajyamu.

Sangama Dynasty (1336-1485 AD)

  • Harihara- I and Bukka- I laid the foundation of Vijayanagar.
  • There was constant conflict between Vijayanagar Empire and Bahmani kingdom after the foundation of kingdoms.
  • They served under Kakatiya rulers of Warangal. They later proclaimed their independence and founded a new city on south bank of Tungabhadra River named it Vijayanagar.
  • Clash of interests in three areas:
    • Raichur doab which was a fertile region between Krishna and Tungabhadra.
    • Over the fertile areas of Krishna-Godavari delta.
    • Marathwada
  • Gajapati dynasty located in Odisha was also engaged in conflict with Vijayanagar.
  • Bukka-I strengthened the city of Vidyanagar and renamed it as Vijayanagar and he was succeeded by his son Harihara-II.
  • Devaraya I: He built a dam across the Tungabhadra with canals leading to the city. Nicolo Conti, Venetian traveller visited the court of Devaraya 1
  • Devaraya II: He inducted muslim cavalrymen and archers in his army at a large. This practice was started by Devaraya I. He had the title of Gajabetekara (elephant hunter). His court poet was Dindima.He was called Praudh Deva Raya

Saluva dynasty (1486-1505 AD)

  • Founder: Saluva Narsimha
  • Vasco Da Gama landed in Calicut during his reign in 1498.

Tuluva Dynasty (1505-70 AD)

  • Founder: Vira Narsimha
  • Krishna Devaraya: Took titles of Yavanaraja Sthapnachrya, Abhinav Bhoja, Andhra Bhoja and Andhra Pitamah.
    • Authored Amukta Malyada (Telugu work on polity) and Sanskrit drama, Jambavati Kalyanam.
    • He had eight eminent scholars Ashtadiggajas at his royal court.
      • Peddana
      • Timmaya
      • Bhattamurthi
      • Dhurjati
      • Mallan
      • Raju Ramchandra
      • Surona
      • Tenali Ramakrishna
    • Built a new city called Nagalapuram in memory of his queen Nagaladevi.
    • He was a contemporary to Babur.
    • Domingo Paes, and Barbosa, Portuguese travellers visited the court of Krishnadevaraya.
  • Achyuta Devaraya: Farnao Nunez, a Portuguese horse trader visited in his reign.
  • During the reign of Rama Raya, the combined forces of Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Golkonda and Bidar defeated him at the Battle of Talaikotta in 1565 which marked an end of the Vijayanagar Empire. The last ruler of Vijayanagar Empire was Sri Ranga 3.

Aravidu Dynasty (1570-1650 AD)

  • Founder: Tirumala.
  • He shifted the capital to Penugonda
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