How are the fjords formed? Why do they constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world?

Model Answer


Fjords are unique geographical formations found in certain coastal regions of temperate regions formed by glacial erosion. It is a long, narrow valley with steep sides filled with seawater. It is deeper in inner and middle parts and shallow mountain threshold at the outer end. 

Fjords are located on the edge of large continents. Fjords are found along the coasts of Norway, Greenland, Alaska, Chile, New Zealand and Antarctica.


Formation of Fjords:

  • Fiords are the result of glacier’s immense power to shape landscapes. 
  • They are essentially drowned glacial valleys formed because of interplay of glacial action and subsequent marine inundation. 
  • During ice ages, glaciers carved deep U-shaped troughs in valleys through plucking and frost shattering. Once glaciers receded, these valleys submerged due to land subsidence or sea level rise, forming fjords.

Picturesque Nature of Fjords:

  • Deep carved valleys with rugged cliffs and U-shaped valleys.
  • Shallow mouths of Fjords make the waters in Fjords quieter than sea.
  • Towering vertical cliffs that rise dramatically from water’s edge.
  • Calm waters function as mirror like surface which reflects the surroundings.
  • Numerous cascading waterfalls which add sound and beauty.
  • Changing seasons has different appearance of fjords
  • Rich in biodiversity. 
  • Norway’s Geirangerfjord, a UNESCO World Heritage sites, exemplify this scenic attractiveness.


Fjords, with their origin rooted in glacial activities and their unparalleled beauty, stand as a testament to nature’s ability to craft awe-inspiring landscapes.

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