Forces acting on Earth; Endogenetic & Exogenetic

Configuration of earth is the result of various processes operating within as well as outside the earth. Multiple forces affect the earth’s crust.

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  • They are called as internal forces as they are present within Earth.
  • These lead to vertical and horizontal movements and result in subsidence, land upliftment, volcanism, faulting, folding, earthquakes, etc.
  • Primordial heat, radioactivity, tidal and rotational friction from the earth results in the creation of these forces.
  • Diastrophic forces are slow movements. It involves epeirogenetic and orogenetic movements.
  • Epeirogenetic movements are the vertical forces and are responsible for continent building. These vertical movements can lead to submergence as well as emergence. 
  • Orogenetic movements are the horizontal forces and are responsible for mountain building. They can be categorized into two major pressures such as the pressure of tension and pressure of compression.
  • Catastrophic forces are fast movements like earthquakes.


  • They are forces acting outside the earth. Hence, are called as external forces. 
  • They are land modifying forces because they cause land to wear down because of their action. Therefore, they are referred to as land wearing forces/denudational forces.
  • Exogenic processes include weathering, mass wasting, erosion, and deposition.
  • Geomorphic agents are natural elements capable of performing these exogenic processes (or exogenic geomorphic agents). For example, the wind, water, and waves.
  • They draw their power from the solar energy.
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