• More expensive than tea and yields less beverage than tea.
  • Native of highlands of Southern Ethiopia (District of Kaffa).
  • Contains Caffeine as stimulants.
  • In 18th century first plantation cultivation started in Dutch east indies
  • Leadership monopoly
    • Arabia (Mocha coffee), Jamaica (Blue mountain coffee), Java coffee, Brazil.
  • Distribution across India:
coffee producing states



  • Most important in world trade
  • Finest coffee for flavor
  • Originated from Mocha
  • Least hardy 


  • West African variety
  • Hardy but poor quality 
  • Disease resistant 


  • Hardy disease resistant
  • Indigenous to Liberia 
  • Suited to lowlands than uplands.
  • Instant coffee varieties are Robusta and Arabica.


1. Temperature: 

  • Mean monthly 14-26, Growth most rapid in hot and rainy season.
  • During cool and dry season berries ripen and are ready for picking
  • Should not drop below 11 C in the coldest month.
  • Cultivation is almost invariably restricted to Tropical areas.

2. Rainfall:

  • Needs high rainfall and should be well distributed (100-200 cm)
  • In Ethiopia, thick sea mist compensates for less rainfall (50 cm)
  • Cannot tolerate stagnant water.
  • Dry period for harvesting and drying is ideal.

3. Shade:

  • Should be sheltered from direct sun light especially when young. 
  • Tall leguminous plants are sometimes used.

4. Uplands conditions:

  • Well drained, cool conditions.
  • Best quality comes from high elevation and slopes.
  • 2000-6000 ft.
  • Slopes which face sea benefit from sea mist

5. Soils:

  • Yield dependent on soil nutrients, decline sharply when soil is exhausted.
  • Well drained volcanic soil like Terra roxa of Brazil which contain much potash as well as organic material.

6. Labour:

  • Handpicked therefore no machine.
  • Every stage requires.
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