- More expensive than tea and yields less beverage than tea.
- Native of highlands of Southern Ethiopia (District of Kaffa).
- Contains Caffeine as stimulants.
- In 18th century first plantation cultivation started in Dutch east indies
- Leadership monopoly
- Arabia (Mocha coffee), Jamaica (Blue mountain coffee), Java coffee, Brazil.
- Distribution across India:
THREE MAJOR CULTIVATED SPECIES ARE
- Most important in world trade
- Finest coffee for flavor
- Originated from Mocha
- Least hardy
- West African variety
- Hardy but poor quality
- Disease resistant
- Hardy disease resistant
- Indigenous to Liberia
- Suited to lowlands than uplands.
- Instant coffee varieties are Robusta and Arabica.
- Mean monthly 14-26, Growth most rapid in hot and rainy season.
- During cool and dry season berries ripen and are ready for picking
- Should not drop below 11 C in the coldest month.
- Cultivation is almost invariably restricted to Tropical areas.
- Needs high rainfall and should be well distributed (100-200 cm)
- In Ethiopia, thick sea mist compensates for less rainfall (50 cm)
- Cannot tolerate stagnant water.
- Dry period for harvesting and drying is ideal.
- Should be sheltered from direct sun light especially when young.
- Tall leguminous plants are sometimes used.
4. Uplands conditions:
- Well drained, cool conditions.
- Best quality comes from high elevation and slopes.
- 2000-6000 ft.
- Slopes which face sea benefit from sea mist
- Yield dependent on soil nutrients, decline sharply when soil is exhausted.
- Well drained volcanic soil like Terra roxa of Brazil which contain much potash as well as organic material.
- Handpicked therefore no machine.
- Every stage requires.