Types of protected areas as per the provisions of the wild life protection act of 1972

National Board for Wild Life

  • During the 1970’s the Government of India appointed a committee for recommending legislative measures and administrative machinery for ensuring environmental protection. Accordingly, a comprehensive central legislation was enacted in 1972 called the Wildlife (Protection) Act for providing special legal protection to our wildlife and to the endangered species of fauna in particular.
  • The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 was subsequently amended during 1991 and last during 2002. As per the amendment of the Act in 2002, a provision was incorporated for the constitution of the National Board for Wildlife, replacing the Indian Board for Wildlife.
  • The National Board for Wildlife came into existence in 2003.
  • The National Board for Wildlife has 47 members with the Prime Minister in the Chair. The Minister in charge of the Ministry of Environment & Forests in the Central Government is the Vice-Chairperson. The Additional Director General of Forests (WL) & Director, Wildlife Preservation is the Member-Secretary to the Board. The Board is responsible for promotion of conservation and development of wildlife and forests.
Type of Protected AreasDeclaration of Protected AreasPermission of CentreAuthority that regulates the Protected Area
SanctuariesState Government to constitute an area as sanctuary by notification. (Such area should not be comprised within any reserve forest or territorial waters)If any part of the territorial waters is to be so included within the sanctuary, prior concurrence of the Central Government shall be obtained by the respective State GovernmentChief Wildlife Warden shall be the authority who shall control, manage and maintain all sanctuaries. State Government shall appoint a Collector to determine rights of persons within the sanctuary
National ParksState Government can declare an area as National Park which is either within a sanctuary or outside it. Reasons: If the area has ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological or zoological association or importance for protecting, propagating or developing wildlife therein or its environmentIf any part of the territorial waters is to be so included within the National Park, prior concurrence of the Central Government shall be obtained by the respective State GovernmentState Government shall appoint a Collector to determine rights of persons within the National Park Chief Wildlife Warden shall be the authority to ensure destruction, damage or diversion of wildlife does not take place Permission of National Board for Wildlife when required? (i)    Alteration of Boundaries of National Park; or (ii)   removal of wildlife from the National Park; or (iii)  the change in the flow of water into or outside the National Park which is necessary for the improvement and better management of wildlife National Board for Wildlife is constituted by Central Government and is chaired by the Prime Minister of India
When can Central Government notify any areas such as Sanctuary or National Parks? When an area which is not already within a sanctuary or national park is transferred or leased by the state to the centre, then the Centre can notify such area as Sanctuary or National Park. Concerning a sanctuary or National Park declared by the Central Government, the powers and duties of the Chief Wildlife Warden shall be exercised and discharged by the Director or by such other officer as may be authorised by the Director on this behalf
Conservation ReserveState & Central Government declares any area owned by Government after consulting with local communities, particularly areas adjacent to National Parks and sanctuaries and those areas which link one protected area with another, as a conservation reserve for protecting landscapes, seascapes, flora and fauna and their habitat. Where the conservation reserve includes any land owned by the Central Government, its prior concurrence shall be obtained. The State Government shall constitute a conservation reserve management committee to advise the Chief Wildlife Warden to conserve, manage and maintain the conservation reserve.
Community ReserveState Government may declare any private or community land not comprised within a National Park, sanctuary or conservation reserve, as a community reserve, for protecting fauna, flora and traditional or cultural conservation values and practices. State Government shall constitute a Community Reserve management committee, which shall be the authority responsible for conserving, maintaining and managing the community reserve. The committee shall consist of five representatives nominated by the Village Panchayat/Gram Sabha and one representative of the State Forests or Wildlife Department under whose jurisdiction the community reserve is located.
Tiger ReserveState Government shall, on the recommendation of the Tiger Conservation Authority, notify an area as a tiger reserve. No State Government shall de-notify a tiger reserve, except in public interest with the approval of the Tiger Conservation Authority and the National Board for Wildlife. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has been constituted by the Central Government chaired by Minister in charge of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. NTCA shall approve the Tiger Conservation Plan prepared by the State Government. 
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