Conservation of Biodiversity: In-Situ & Ex- Situ

Conservation of Biodiversity is of importance because of two major reasons firstly because of services that biodiversity provides and secondly the rapid pace at which at which biodiversity is being destroyed. There are two broader categories in which the efforts for conservation of biodiversity can be grouped – i) In-situ (on site) and ii) Ex-Situ(off site).

In-Situ conservation

  • It is on-site conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plants or animal species such as forest genetic resources, in natural populations of tree and animal species.
  • The process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat is commonly known as in situ conservation.
  • For ex. Identifying and declaring Biosphere reserves (Nilgiri / Manas / Nanda devi etc.)

Ex-situ conservation

  • In this approach, threatened animals and plants are taken out from their natural habitat and placed in special setting where they can be protected and given special care.
  • Zoological parks, botanical gardens and wildlife safari parks serve this purpose.
  • There are many animals that have become extinct in the wild but continue to be maintained in zoological parks.
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