Cartagena Protocol

  • An international treaty governing movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.
  • Adopted in 2000 as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD).
  • The Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
  • It establishes an advance informed agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory. The Protocol contains a reference to a precautionary approach.
  • It also establishes a Biosafety Clearinghouse to facilitate the exchange of information on living modified organisms and to assist countries in the implementation of the Protocol.
  • India has ratified this protocol.
  • The convention does not apply to Pharmaceuticals for humans that are addressed by other international Agreements or organizations

Nagoya — Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

The objective of the Supplementary Protocol is to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity by providing international rules and procedures for liability and redress in the event of damage resulting from LMOs.

The Protocol’s AIA procedure does not apply to:

  1. LMOs in transit.
  2. LMOs destined for contained use in the Party of import.
  3. LMOs intended for direct use as food or feed or for processing (LMOs-FFP).

Under the Protocol, Advance Informed Agreement (AIA) procedure applies to the first intentional transboundary movement of an LMO for intentional introduction into the environment of the Party of import.

Precautionary Principle

Proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision-making. It has four central components:

  • Taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty.
  • Shifting the burden of proof to proponents of an activity.
  • Exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions.

Increasing public participation in decision-making.

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