Biogeographic zones in India

India is a diverse country with varied biogeographic zones that encompass a wide range of ecosystems and biodiversity. The major biogeographic zones of India are as follows:

Trans-Himalayan Zone

  • This zone includes the high-altitude regions of Ladakh, Lahaul-Spiti, and parts of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It is characterised by alpine meadows, barren landscapes, and sparse vegetation.

Himalayan Zone

  • This zone extends along the entire length of the Himalayan mountain range and includes states like Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and parts of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It features diverse ecosystems ranging from sub-tropical forests in the lower regions to coniferous forests, alpine meadows, and glaciers at higher elevations.

Desert Zone

  • The desert zone covers the arid regions of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and parts of Haryana and Punjab.
  • It comprises the Thar Desert and features xerophytic vegetation, sand dunes, and saline lakes.

Semi-Arid Zone

  • This zone encompasses areas with a semi-arid climate, including parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • It features shrub-lands, dry deciduous forests, and grasslands.

Western Ghats

  • The Western Ghats, running parallel to the western coast of India, constitute a hotspot of biodiversity.
  • This zone includes tropical evergreen forests, moist deciduous forests, grasslands, and wetlands.

Deccan Plateau

  • The Deccan Plateau covers central and southern India, including parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
  • It consists of dry deciduous forests, scrublands, and extensive agricultural lands.

Gangetic Plain

  • This zone encompasses the fertile plains of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, extending across states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Assam.
  • It features alluvial soils, wetlands, and diverse vegetation.

Coastal Zone

  • The coastal zone covers the coastal areas of India, including mangrove forests, estuaries, beaches, and coral reefs.
  • It is rich in marine biodiversity and supports unique ecosystems.

Northeastern Himalayan Region

  • This zone includes the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and parts of Assam and Nagaland.
  • It features a diverse range of habitats, including subtropical forests, montane forests, and alpine meadows.

Eastern Ghats

  • The Eastern Ghats stretch along the eastern coast of India, covering states like Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
  • This zone comprises dry deciduous forests, scrublands, and hilly terrain.


  • The Lakshadweep Islands are a group of coral islands located in the Arabian Sea. This zone is characterised by coral reefs, lagoons, and marine ecosystems with rich biodiversity.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a chain of islands located in the Bay of Bengal. They are home to diverse ecosystems, including tropical rainforests, mangroves, coral reefs, and endemic species.

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