Climate change is affecting food security through increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and greater frequency of some extreme events.
Tropical countries of Asia, Africa and South America face the double burden of experiencing higher weather extremities on one hand and lower potential to deal with such challenges on the other.
Consequences of climate change on Food Security in Tropical Countries
- Reduces yields in crop and livestock systems. According to NASA, Maize crop yields are projected to decline 24% on account of climate change.
- Increases pest attacks and diseases and reduces pollinators. E.g., Locust attacks
- Reduces food quality by spoilage and loss of mycotoxins.
- Yield reductions and reduced farmer income limit the ability to purchase food. E.g., 70% of India’s rural households depend primarily on agriculture with 82% of farmers being small and marginal.
- Price rise further affects it, especially the low-income countries.
- Weather extremities disrupt food supplies and transportation infrastructure.
- Reduced nutritional quality on account of increased CO2.
- Higher flooding leads to higher infectious diseases. E.g., Mali, Chad and Niger
- Widespread crop failure may further increase migration and conflict
- Higher migration and conflict further hampers food security.
Interventions such as climate resilient agriculture, enhancing per capita income and better disaster preparedness can help achieve sustainable development goal of food security by 2030.