Sangam Polity

  • Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas were three important dynasties in South India. These dynasties are called as Muvendars in Sangam literature.
  • Their presence can be traced as early as the Mauryan times. Pandyas are also mentioned in the Major Rock Edict inscriptions of Maurya emperor Ashoka (3rd century BCE). 
  • They were associated with the Megalithic culture.
  • The administration had two councils named Aimperunkulu and Enperayam (as mentioned in Silappadikaram). The first one was the council of five ministers. And the latter one was the council of eight government officials.
  • Hereditary monarchy was the form of government during the Sangam period.
  • The kingdom was divided into:
    • Mandalam/Nadu: Province
    • Ur: Town
    • Perur: Big Village
    • Sirur: Small Village
  • Each ruler had a regular army and their respective Kodimaram (tutelary tree)
  • Each of the Sangam dynasties had a royal emblem, such as:
    • Carp/fish for the Pandyas
    • Tiger for the Cholas
    • Bow for the Cheras.
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