1st Buddhist Council, 483 BC
- Place: Rajgriha, Bihar Ruler: Ajatshatru
- Accomplishment: Buddha’s teachings were compiled into Sutta Pitaka (Ananda) and Vinaya Pitaka (Upali)
2nd Buddhist Council, 383 BC
- Place: Vaishali Ruler: Kalashoka (Shishunaga dynasty)
- Accomplishment: Buddhist sangha was divided into schools i.e., Theravada or Sthavira and Mahasanghik or Sarvastivadin.
- Theravadi is the oldest Buddhist school with its main center in Kashmir. Mahasanghik’ is main center was in Magadha.
3rd Buddhist Council, 250 BC
- Place: Pataliputra Ruler: Ashoka
- Accomplishment: Compilation of the third pitaka i.e., Abhidhamma Pitaka which explains the tenets of Dhamma.
4th Buddhist Council, 98 AD
- Place: Kashmir Ruler: Kanishka
- Accomplishment: Compilation of Vibhashashastra by Vasumitra, a commentary in Sanskrit on the difficult aspects of Buddhist texts.
- Buddhists again broke into 2 schools i.e., Theravadi or Sthavira became Hinayana and Sarvastivadin or Mahasanghik became Mahayana schools.