Buddhist Councils

1st Buddhist Council, 483 BC

  • Place: Rajgriha, Bihar Ruler: Ajatshatru
  • Accomplishment: Buddha’s teachings were compiled into Sutta Pitaka (Ananda) and Vinaya Pitaka (Upali)

2nd Buddhist Council, 383 BC

  • Place: Vaishali Ruler: Kalashoka (Shishunaga dynasty)
  • Accomplishment: Buddhist sangha was divided into schools i.e., Theravada or Sthavira and Mahasanghik or Sarvastivadin.
  • Theravadi is the oldest Buddhist school with its main center in Kashmir. Mahasanghik’ is main center was in Magadha.

3rd Buddhist Council, 250 BC

  • Place: Pataliputra Ruler: Ashoka
  • Accomplishment: Compilation of the third pitaka i.e., Abhidhamma Pitaka which explains the tenets of Dhamma.

4th Buddhist Council, 98 AD

  • Place: Kashmir Ruler: Kanishka
  • Accomplishment: Compilation of Vibhashashastra by Vasumitra, a commentary in Sanskrit on the difficult aspects of Buddhist texts.
  • Buddhists again broke into 2 schools i.e., Theravadi or Sthavira became Hinayana and Sarvastivadin or Mahasanghik became Mahayana schools.
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