External state and non-state actors compromise the National security by using conventional as well as sub-conventional warfare and exploiting the internal fault lines.
Challenges posed by
- External State actors
- Threat of war – Two front war challenge – collusion of China and Pak.
- Proliferation of nuclear weapons and missiles. Ex – China developing HyperSonic Weapons, Pakistan developing nuclear missiles.
- Sovereignty and territorial Integrity – PoK, Aksai Chin occupied by China.
- State-sponsored terrorism – Pakistan sponsored terrorism to destabilise J&K and Punjab Insurgency.
- Non-State Actors
- Influencing politics at a national and sometimes international level. Ex – LeT in Kashmir.
- Separatist tendencies – Insurgency in North – east states. Ex – Naga insurgency by NSCN-IM etc.
- Nexus with organised Crime – Drug trade, Weapons trade and Human trafficking.
- Utilised by State actors to create disturbances – Ex – terror financing, Safe havens to terrorists.
Developing Military capability to create deterrence
- Defense Modernisation – Hypersonic missiles, S–400 missile defense system etc.
- Boosting Nuclear capability – Nuclear Triad.
- Geo – political collaborations – Quad, MALABAR Exercise etc.
- Resolution of Border disputes with Pakistan and China.
Strengthening security architecture –
- Intelligence gathering, Training, counter terror Operations
- Securing key installations – Ex – Uri and Pathankot attacks.
- Speedy and effective Investigations, Prosecution and convictions
Controlling Terror Financing
- Strengthening Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA),Empowering agencies – ED, FIU, NIA etc, Formalizing Economy, Improving cyber security and regulating Cryptocurrency etc.
- Finalisation UN comprehensive convention on International Terrorism.
- Increasing the effectiveness of bodies like Financial Action Task Force (FATF), Eurasian group
- Tackling Underlying Causes
- Engaging Citizens, civil society and media in fight against terrorism.
- Education – To make the society more harmonious and cohesive in the long run.
The security threat posed by External state and Non – State actors is complex and needs to be tackled by focussing on creating deterrence as well as boosting the internal security architecture.