Analyse the multidimensional challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also discuss measures required to be taken to combat these threats.

Sample Answer


External state and non-state actors compromise the National security by using conventional as well as sub-conventional warfare and exploiting the internal fault lines.


Challenges posed by

  • External State actors
    • Threat of war – Two front war challenge – collusion of China and Pak.
    • Proliferation of nuclear weapons and missiles. Ex – China developing HyperSonic Weapons, Pakistan developing nuclear missiles.
    • Sovereignty and territorial Integrity – PoK, Aksai Chin occupied by China.
    • State-sponsored terrorism – Pakistan sponsored terrorism to destabilise J&K and Punjab Insurgency.
  • Non-State Actors
    • Influencing politics at a national and sometimes international level. Ex – LeT in Kashmir.
    • Separatist tendencies – Insurgency in North – east states. Ex – Naga insurgency by NSCN-IM etc.
    • Nexus with organised Crime – Drug trade, Weapons trade and Human trafficking.
    • Utilised by State actors to create disturbances – Ex – terror financing, Safe havens to terrorists. 

Developing Military capability to create deterrence

  • Defense Modernisation – Hypersonic missiles, S–400 missile defense system etc.
  • Boosting Nuclear capability – Nuclear Triad.
  • Geo – political collaborations – Quad, MALABAR Exercise etc.
  • Resolution of Border disputes with Pakistan and China.

Strengthening security architecture –

  • Intelligence gathering, Training, counter terror Operations
  • Securing key installations –  Ex – Uri and Pathankot attacks.
  • Speedy and effective Investigations, Prosecution and convictions

Controlling Terror Financing

  • Strengthening Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA),Empowering agencies – ED, FIU, NIA etc, Formalizing Economy, Improving cyber security and regulating Cryptocurrency etc.

Global Collaboration

  • Finalisation UN comprehensive convention on International Terrorism.
  • Increasing the effectiveness of bodies like Financial Action Task Force (FATF), Eurasian group
  • Tackling Underlying Causes
  • Engaging  Citizens, civil society and media in fight against terrorism.
  • Education – To make the society more harmonious and cohesive in the long run.


The security threat posed by External state and Non – State actors is complex and needs to be tackled by focussing on creating deterrence as well as boosting the internal security architecture.

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