Terrorism threatens the national security by destabilising economy, breaking political cohesion, and threatens the legitimacy and efficacy of the state itself.
Due to the following causes Complexity and Intensity has been increasing –
- Lack of International Consensus.
- State sponsored terrorism by Pakistan.
- Non State terror organisations – LeT, ISIS, Al Qaeda.
- Polarization and Radicalisation based on Ideologies – Left Wing, right Wing, Ethno – Nationalism and religious extremism.
- Political alienation and social vulnerability. Ex – J&K.
- Terrorist propaganda using Social Media – Ex – ISIS.
- Terror financing by Organised crimes – Narco-Financing Ex – Taliban etc.
- Role of Pakistan and Taliban’s presence in the Afghanistan and presence of terrorist groups in J&K like Lasker-e-Toiba etc.
Linkages and Nexus
- UN-International Narcotics Control Board report highlighted the nexus between Organised crime and Terrorism.
Measures required to Control
- Strengthening security architecture –
- Intelligence gathering – From ground level – Collation and easy access. Ex – NATGRID established post 26/11 is key for analysis of intelligence inputs.
- Training – counter Insurgency and Antiterrorist Schools (CIATs)
- Mock security-drills and counter terror Operations – Standard operating Procedure.
- Securing key installations – Ex – Uri and Pathankot attacks.
- Speedy and effective Investigations, Prosecution and convictions
- Controlling Terror Financing
- Strengthening Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA)
- Empowering agencies – ED, FIU, NIA etc
- Formalising Economy
- Improving cyber security and regulating Cryptocurrency etc.
- Finalisation UN comprehensive convention on International Terrorism.
- Increasing the effectiveness of bodies like Financial Action Task Force (FATF), Eurasian group, IMF money laundering body, UN office on drugs and crime
Tackling Underlying Causes
- Engaging Citizens, civil society and media in fight against terrorism.
- Education – To make the society more harmonious and cohesive in the long run.
Thus a multi-pronged approach is required which focuses on strengthening security architecture along with countering the underlying challenges that breed terrorism.