- It brought the concept of Liberty and individual rights among the people. They demanded end of slavery, women’s rights, religious freedom and voting rights.
- English traditions such as Land inheritance was removed forever.
- Anglican church was no longer surviving.
- Women were inculcated with more liberty and ability to lead a life of choice.
- On England: people who were loyal to Britain began migrating back and government of England was in dilemma to settle these people.
- On France: soldiers who came back from US brought with them, the stories of bravery of American who fought the autocratic rule and further boosted the French Revolution.
- A private Bank of North America was created to raise the savings during the war time situation.
- American colonies went in the phase of steep inflation and high fiscal deficits.
- Even rich were unable to lend loans to the government.
- On England: National debt on England went skyrocketed. Nation was unable to pay for exports and could not prevent arrival of recession. Prices of goods and property went uncontrollable. However, Peace of Paris brought some relief as the trade between US and England began to reach the pre-revolution level. Secondly, England began to exert more burden on its best colony i.e. India.
- On France: it went in the phase of bankruptcy and called for revolution.
- English Prime Ministers began regulating their colonies. For instance, Prime Minister William Pitts passes Pitts India act to regulate East India company rule in India.
- Britain may have lost thirteen colonies in America, but it retained Canada and land in the Caribbean, Africa and India.
- Monarchy was replaced with direct democracy. There were regular demand across England for the constitutional reforms such as expansion of who could vote, and a redrawing of the electoral map.
- England began finding new places to house their convicts and later found Australia to be a suitable place.
- Constitutionalism became a new ideological demand across the globe.
Features of American Constitution
- Written constitution consisting seven articles.
- It is a rigid constitution due to complicated process of amendment.
- Relevant principles: Bicameralism, Federal setup of governance, separation of power among three organs of government, republican form of government, Dual citizenship, independence of judiciary etc.
- Bill of Rights:
- Right to speech, Right to press, Right to assemble
- Right to keep arms and bear arms
- Right against unreasonable seizure and search of individual’s house.
- Judicial rights such as due process of law, rights against self-indiscrimination, no double jeopardy etc.