Causes behind Russia Revolution

Political Cause:

Politically the Tsar’s rule was very weak.

1. The Russo-Japanese War

In the late 1800s, Russia and Japan were imperialist powers. They both competed for control of Korea and Manchuria. Russia broke them many territorial treaties. In retaliation, Japan attacked Russia in Manchuria, in February 1904 defeated. This lowered the international and domestic prestige of Russia.

2. Tsarist Rule

Tsar Nicholas II was autocratic in his administration. The members of zemstoves and Dumas wanted liberal reforms from the Tsar. But Tsar was not prepared to sanction any reforms. The Tsarist court was under the evil influence of Rusputin. The Tsarina was strongly under his influence and at times the administration was affected by his influence. Hence, the nobles poisoned Rusputin to death.

3. Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905

On January 22, 1905, about 200,000 workers and their families approached the czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, Father Gapon led them. They asked for better working conditions, more personal freedom, and an elected national legislature. Nicholas II was not at the palace. His generals and police chiefs were. They ordered the soldiers to fire on the crowd. Russians quickly named the event “Bloody Sunday.” Bloody Sunday provoked a wave of strikes and violence that spread across the country. Nicholas approved the creation of the Duma Russia’s first parliament. Its leaders were moderates who wanted Russia to become a constitutional monarchy similar to Britain.

Economic Causes:

Russia’s agriculture was largely based on independent peasants and economy was outdated.

  • They did not own modern machinery. Russian agriculture suffered from cold climate. Russia’s agriculture season was only 4-6 months. The famine of 1891 had left many peasants in poverty.
  • The rapid industrialization of Russia also resulted in urban overcrowding and poor conditions for urban industrial workers.
  • There was also no running water, and piles of human waste were a threat to the health of the workers. Hence, the workers in general were in a discontented situation.
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