British attitude on 13 colonies
- British supremacy and mercantilism was forcefully imposed.
- Best purpose of colonies was to provide the raw material to the mother land and buy the finished products.
Trade policy of British
1. Navigation Act of 1651: all goods entering England must be carried in ships owed or manned by British subjects.
2. Enumerated commodities Act of 1660: sugar, tobacco, cotton, indigo and dyes export should only go to England or English colonies.
3. Staple Act of 1663: all exports going from Europe to America should go from the English ports and pay duty.
4. Duty Act of 1673: custom collectors to enforce above acts.
5. Enforcement Act of 1696: registration of colonial ships to check on smuggling. Custom officials can search ships.
6. Restrictions were imposed on certain goods to be produced in America such as woolen goods or luxury items.
Seven Years War and Treaty of Paris (1763)
After the end of Seven Year War, England and France signed the Treaty of Paris 1763 where France lost its territories in North America including Canada. England got areas east of Mississippi while Spain retained the west side.
Impact: Due to large war expanses, England restored to high taxes on its colonies. Taxes were raised to pay pension to retired officers, standing armies were stationed and cancelled colonies rights over west of Appalachian. This angered the colonies against the British. They resorted to protest on ‘no taxation without representation’. Even American were now well versed to take on the colonial powers in war.
Seven Years War (1756-63):
It is a global conflict which was leaded by France and England. Anglo Spanish War and Carnatic Wars are contemporary to this conflict. Main cause behind this war was the desire of European powers to expand in Europe or in their colonies. Austria sided with France while England united with Prussia. Battle began with conflict between France and England in American region and later expanded to other places where they either had rule or interest in the ruling dynasties (e.g. Carnatic in India). Austria wanted to recover Silesia from Prussia. Result was the defeat of France and its allies like Austria and Spain. France lost its territories in India and America.
Crown’s Proclamation of 1763
It restricted the colonies to expand westward to Appalachian. Reason cited was to protect the colonies from the attacks of red Indian. This annoyed the colonial powers.