- The policy aims to attain the highest possible level of health and well-being for every citizen through a preventive and promotive healthcare orientation.
- It seeks to provide and deliver healthcare services, particularly to underprivileged and socially vulnerable groups of people in the country.
- Under the policy, every family will have a health card to access primary care facilities and a nationwide package of services.
- Health and hygiene to become part of the school curriculum – Yoga would be introduced much more widely in schools and workplaces to promote good health.
- The policy envisages a three-dimensional integration of AYUSH systems by promoting cross referrals, co-location and integrative practices across systems of medicines.
- The policy also addresses health security and promotes Make in India for drugs and devices. It seeks to establish a Public Health Management Cadre (PHMC) in all states.
- It also proposes raising public health expenditure to 2.5% of the GDP in a time-bound manner.
Specific Quantitative Goals and Objectives
Health Status and Programme Impact Life
- Expectancy and healthy life Increase Life Expectancy at birth from 67.5 to 70 by 2025.
- Establish regular tracking of the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) Index as a measure of the burden of disease and its trends by major categories by 2022.
- Reduction of TFR to 2.1 at national and sub-national levels by 2025.
Mortality by Age and/ or Cause
- Reduce Under Five Mortality to 23 by 2025 and MMR from current levels to 100 by 2020.
- Reduce infant mortality rate to 28 by 2019.
- Reduce neonatal mortality to 16 and stillbirth rate to “single digit” by 2025.
Reduction of disease prevalence/ incidence
- Achieve the global target of 2020 which is also termed a target of 90:90:90, for HIV/AIDS i.e, – 90% of all people living with HIV know their HIV status, – 90% of all people diagnosed with HIV infection receive sustained antiretroviral therapy and 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression.
- Achieve and maintain the elimination status of Leprosy by 2018, Kala-Azar by 2017 and Lymphatic Filariasis in endemic pockets by 2017. To achieve and maintain a cure rate of >85% in new sputum-positive patients for TB and reduce the incidence of new cases, to reach elimination status by 2025.
- To reduce the prevalence of blindness to 0.25/ 1000 by 2025 and disease burden by one-third from current levels.
- To reduce premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes or chronic respiratory diseases by 25% by 2025.
Health Systems Performance
Coverage of Health Services
- Increase utilization of public health facilities by 50% from current levels by 2025.
- Antenatal care coverage to be sustained above 90% and skilled attendance at birth above 90% by 2025.
- More than 90% of the newborn are fully immunized by one year of age by 2025.
- Meet family planning needs above 90% at national and sub-national levels by 2025.
- 80% of known hypertensive and diabetic individuals at the household level maintain “controlled disease status” by 2025.
Cross-Sectoral goals related to health
- The relative reduction in the prevalence of current tobacco use by 15% by 2020 and 30% by 2025.
- Reduction of 40% in the n prevalence of stunting of under-five children by 2025.
- Access to safe water and sanitation to all by 2020 (Swachh Bharat Mission).
- Reduction of occupational injury by half from current levels of 334 per lakh agricultural workers by 2020.
- National/ State level tracking of selected health behaviour.
Health Systems strengthening
- Increase health expenditure by Government as a percentage of GDP from the existing 1.1 5 % to 2.5 % by 2025.
- Increase State sector health spending to > 8% of their budget by 2020.
- Decrease in the proportion of households facing catastrophic health expenditure from the current levels by 25%, by 2025.
Health Infrastructure and Human Resource
- Ensure the availability of paramedics and doctors as per the Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS) norm in high-priority districts by 2020.
- Increase community health volunteers to population ratio per IPHS norm, in high-priority districts by 2025.
- Establish primary and secondary care facilities per norms in high-priority districts (population and time to reach norms) by 2025.
Health Management Information
- Ensure district–level electronic database of information on health system components by 2020.
- Strengthen the health surveillance system and establish registries for diseases of public health importance by 2020.
- Establish federated integrated health information architecture, Health Information Exchanges and National Health Information Network by 2025.
Ensuring Adequate Investment -The policy proposes a potentially achievable target of raising public health expenditure to 2.5% of the GDP in a time-bound manner.
Preventive and Promotive Health – The policy identifies coordinated action on seven priority areas for improving the environment for health: The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Balanced, healthy diets and regular exercises. Addressing tobacco, alcohol and substance abuse Yatri Suraksha – preventing deaths due to rail and road traffic accidents Nirbhaya Nari – action against gender violence Reduced stress and improved safety in the workplace Reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution
Organization of Public Health Care Delivery – The policy proposes seven key policy shifts in organizing health care services.
Criticism of the Policy
- The policy duplicates portions of the Health Section 2017 Budget speech.
- It reiterates health spending targets set by the High-Level Expert Group (HLEG) set up by the erstwhile Planning Commission for the 12th Five-Year Plan (which ends on March 31, 2017)
- It also fails to make health a justifiable right through National Health Rights Act like the Right to Education Act 2005 did for school education.
- A health cess was a path-breaking idea in the Health Ministry’s draft policy; it has now been dropped from the final policy
- Through the 2002 policy, the government promised to increase health spending to 2 per cent of GDP, which never happened under the National Democratic Alliance (NDA-1) or during the 10 years of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) administration.
- Old Targets and New Deadlines:
- The IMR in 2015-16 was 41.
- The MMR in 2015-16 is 167.
- The 2002 NHP had set the target of eliminating leprosy by 2005, kala-azar by 2010 and lymphatic filariasis by 2015–none of which could be achieved yet.