Space 2.0: Recent Space Sector Reforms In India

  • Conventionally the satellite industry comprised of spacecraft manufacturing, launch vehicles, satellite operation etc. With the rise of satellite-based internet, geospatial intelligence, satellite-based M2M technology, satellite-based backhaul for 5G etc., space sector is undergoing a paradigmatic shift.
  • India leapfrogged into Space 2.0 activities taking a number of steps to engage private sector more actively.
  • Space 1.0 included handholding of private sector where  it was passively involved in activities like spare parts manufacturing other auxiliary services.
  • Space 2.0 activities involves private sector actively in which it will design, develop and market space-based products including but not restricted to satellite payloads, launch vehicles, even building space ports.
  • The 4 pillars of space sector reforms are
  • the freedom of innovation to the private sector
  • the role of the government as an enabler
  • to prepare the youth for the future
  • to see the space sector as a resource for the progress of the common man

Steps Taken Under Space 2.0

Creation of IN-SPACe (2020)

  • Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center to facilitate and regulate private sector participation in the space sector.
  • It is an independent nodal agency under Department of Space. To act as single-window agency for private sector involvement


  • Establishment of New Space India Limited (NSIL) under the Department of Space as commercial arm of ISRO.
  • NSIL is a wholly-owned subsidiary of ISRO taking up its operational aspects of ISRO facilitating private participation in space.

Functions of NSIL

  • Commercial aspects of ISRO providing services such as satellite launches, mission management, and other related services.
  • Enables technology transfer from ISRO to private players
  • Facilitate marketing of space-based products

Indian Space Association

  • Established in 2021
  • It is an industry body for space and satellite industries (similar to NASSCOM for software industry)

Mission Defence Space

  • Objective: To develop innovative solutions for the Defense Forces in the space domain through private sector participation.
  • In line with  space sector reforms initiated as a part of Vision 2030 announced in 2019 budget.

Private Participation And Space 2.0

The following table provides some examples of private participation in Space 2.0

Prarambh Vikram-S

1st ever private space mission of India by Skyroot Aerospace

Vikram-S was a test-flight for Vikram Series of Rockets to be launched in the coming years.

It was a single-stage solid fueled rocket that did a sub-orbital flight.

Vikram Series:

  • Series of 3 rockets in development to launch small satellites upto 815 Kg to SSPO
  • Solid-fuel rockets built on upgradeable architecture with carbon composite and 3D-printed motors
  • Can be assembled and launched in less than 72 hours.
  • Support communication services such as broadband internet, GPS, IoT from space and earth imaging.

Raman Engine: 1st private liquid propulsion engine developed by Skyroot

Kalam 5 engine: Solid-fuel engine

Dhawan engine: Cryogenic

Agnikul Cosmos and its activities

  • Agnibaan: SSLV powered by a semi-cryogenic engine, Agnilet. (liquid kerosene as fuel and liquid oxygen)
  • Agnilet engine: world 1st single piece 3-d printed rocket engine)

Agnikul Cosmos

India’s First Private Space Vehicle Launchpad


  • Hyperspectral imaging satellites
  • Anand
  • Shakuntala

Dhruva Space

  • Build solar arrays for satellites
  • Also launched 2 radio nano satellites Thybolt 1 and Thybolt-2
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