Bharat Stage Norms
- Set up by CPCB in 2000.
- It primarily regulates IC engine emissions particularly from vehicles.
- They are based on Euro regulations.
- Though we started some regulations in 1992, we implemented for 2 and 3-wheelers only around 2000.
- Requirement was lean-fuel ratio and electronic ignition.
- Changeover to 4 stroke
- Use of catalytic converter to reduce NOx.
- Fuel Injection system.
- From 20th April 2020 Bharat Stage 6 is being implemented which makes it mandatory to use PM traps and NOX catalytic convertors.
- Currently in India we have emission norms for vehicles (2, 3, 4 wheelers, heavy duty engines, diesel construction machinery, diesel agricultural tractors(TREM norms), generator sets)
- However, we do not have emission norms for locomotives as of now.
- With pressure from various quarters including NGT, locomotive emission norms are on the anvil and will soon be implemented.
Bharat Stage 6
- Vehicular emission (NOx, SO2, CO2 and particulate matter) is a major contributor to the worsening air quality of Indian cities.
- Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) is an emission standard that will induce technology in the vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions.
- The vehicles will mandatorily include OBD (On-board diagnostics) which will and monitor the pollution caused by the vehicle in real time.
- The BS-VI vehicles use selective catalytic reduction technology which substantially reduces particulate matter emission. (remember in order for this to work we need to use low-sulphur fuel)
BS-6 emission norms
- Petrol vehicles will have to effect a 25% reduction in their NOx, or nitrogen oxide emissions.
- Diesel engines will have to reduce their
- HC+NOx (hydrocarbon + nitrogen oxides) by 43%,
- NOx levels by 68%
- Particulate matter levels by 82%.
Advantages of using BS-6 fuel and vehicles
- NOx emission will come down by approximately 25% for the petrol engine and 68% for the diesel engines.
- BS-6 grade fuel contains 10 parts per million (ppm) of sulphur as against 50 ppm in BS-4 fuels.
- The BS-6 fuel would result in 10-20 per cent reduction in particulate emission when used in BS-4 or lesser grade engines.
- The Octane number for petrol engines has improved from 88 in BS-2 to 91 as required under BS-6 emission norms.
- However full benefits will be realized when the automakers start manufacturing BS 6 grade engines in their vehicles.
- The PM emission will see a substantial decrease of 80% in diesel engines.