• India’s 1st Human spaceflight programme.
  • It will include two unmanned flights and one human space flight.
  • It will carry 3 astronauts to a low earth orbit of 300 to 400 kilometres on board GSLV Mark III vehicle, for at least 7 days.
  • It will make India the 4th country to send manned mission after Russia, USA and China.
  • The first trial (uncrewed flight) for Gaganyaan is being planned by the end of 2023 followed by sending Vyom Mitra, a humanoid and then with the crew onboard.

Components of Gaganyaan

Rocket: GSLV Mk-III

Crew Module

  • A crew module and service module.
  • The crew members will be selected by the IAF and ISR.
  • Crew will perform micro-gravity and other scientific experiments for a week.

Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry technology – CARE

  • Satellites that are launched for communication or remote sensing are meant to remain in space.
  • However, a manned spacecraft needs to come back.
  • While reentering Earth’s atmosphere, the spacecraft needs to withstand very high temperatures created due to friction.
  • A prior critical experiment was carried out in 2014 along with GSLV MK-III when the CARE (Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment) capsule successfully demonstrated that it could survive atmospheric re-entry.

Crew Escape System – PAT

  • The Crew Escape System is an emergency accident avoidance measure.
  • In July 2018, ISRO completed the first successful flight ‘pad abort test’ or Crew Escape System.

Environmental Control & Life Support System ECLSS

  • ECLSS will
  • Maintain steady cabin pressure and air composition
  • Remove carbon dioxide and other harmful gases
  • Control temperature and humidity
  • Manage parameters like fire detection and suppression


  • ISRO’s humanoid robot that will test-flight Gangayaan.
  • It is a Gynoid (female humanoid).
  • Vyom Mitra was built by ISRO’s Inertial Systems Unit, Thiruvananthapuram.


  • To perform panel operations on board the spacecraft
  • Act as companion to astronauts capable of recognizing, conversing and responding to their queries
  • To test the Environmental Control & Life Support System of Ganganyaan in order todetect environmental changes.
Online Counselling
Table of Contents
Today's Current Affairs
This is default text for notification bar