- It established the concept and guiding principles for building the Constitution and eventually took the shape of the Preamble to the Indian Constitution. On 22 January 1947, the Constituent Assembly accepted this Resolution.
- According to the Resolution, the Constituent Assembly would first proclaim India as the Independent Sovereign Republic, with all territories remaining autonomous and possessing residuary powers; all Indians would be guaranteed justice, equality of status, freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship, vocation, association, and subject to the law and public morality; and adequate safeguards would be provided for minorities, backward, and depressed people.
- The Constituent Assembly had a total of 22 committees to look into the different tasks in the making of the constitution. Out of the 22 committees, 8 were major committees and the rest were minor committees.
- A major chunk of deliberations of the Constituent Assembly was on the Draft Constitution(s) prepared by the Drafting Committee. Members of the Constituent Assembly proposed amendments which had to be submitted in advance to the Chairman, and these were debated at length. At the end of a debate around an Article of the Draft Constitution, the Constituent Assembly either adopted or rejected amendments. It took decisions through a majority vote.
- On 9 December 1946, the Constituent Assembly sat for the first time. In the span of 2 years and 11 months, it completed its task of framing the Indian Constitution. During this period the Constituent Assembly had 11 sessions and sat for a total of 166 days. On 26 November the Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India which came into force on 26 January 1950.
Dissolution of Constituent Assembly:
- Following the authentication of the Constitution’s copies, the Constituent Assembly was naturally dissolved, with its chairperson elected President of India and its staff diverted to other avenues.
- However, the majority of the Assembly continued to function as the provisional Parliament of India until the first general elections were held.
- This provisional Parliament did, in fact, make the first amendment to the Indian Constitution in the summer of 1951.
Criticism of Constituent Assembly:
|Not a Representative Body: The Constituent Assembly was not a representative body, according to opponents, because its members were not directly elected by the people of India using the universal adult franchise.|
|Not a Sovereign Entity: Critics said that the Constituent Assembly was not a sovereign body because it was established by British government suggestions. They further claimed that the Assembly met with the authorization of the British government.|
|Time-consuming: Critics claim that the Constituent Assembly took an excessive amount of time to draught the Constitution. They claimed that the framers of the American Constitution finished their work in just four months.|
|Congress-dominated Constituent Assembly: Critics said that the Congress party dominated the Constituent Assembly. ‘The Constituent Assembly was a one-party assembly in an essentially one-party society,’ said Granville Austin, a British constitutional expert. The Congress was the Assembly, and India was the Congress.’|
|Lawyer – Politician Domination: The Constituent Assembly was likewise dominated by attorneys and politicians, according to detractors. They argued that other aspects of society were not adequately reflected. This, they believe, is the primary cause for the Constitution’s volume and complication of language.|
|Hindu-dominated: Some critics claim that the Constituent Assembly was Hindu-dominated. Lord Viscount Simon referred to it as “a Hindu body.” Winston Churchill, likewise, stated that the Constituent Assembly represented “just one large community in India.”|