Policies for Annexing States

  • Policy of ring fence: Warren Hastings started it, to create buffer zones to defend the Company’s frontiers. The states brought under this policy were assured of military assistance but at their own expense.
  • Subsidiary alliance: Lord Wellesley started it wherein an allied Indian states ruler was compelled to accept permanent stationing of British force within his territory to pay subsidy for its maintenance. It was an extension of the Ring Fence policy. States annexed under this policy: Awadh (1801), Hyderabad (1800), Mysore (1799), Tanjore (1799), Peshwa (1801), Berar (1803), Scindia (1804), Holkars (1818).
  • Doctrine of lapse: Lord Dalhousie started it wherein the adopted son of any ruler could not become the heir of state. States annexed under this policy: Satara (1848), Jhansi and Nagpur (1854), Awadh (1856) Sambalpur (1849), and Udaipur (1850).

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