British Policy Towards Neighbours

  • Anglo-Burma relations: British intervention in Burma was principally to counter the influence of the French in Indo-China. 1st Anglo-Burma war happened from 1824-26; over with the Treaty of Yandbo (1826). The 2nd Anglo-Burma war happened in 1852. After the 3rd Anglo-Burma war, Burma was finally annexed in 1885. Lord Dufferin was Viceroy of India when Burma was annexed. The annexation of Burma was opposed as it increased the expenses of colonial government in India.
  • Anglo-Nepal relations: Anglo-Nepal War was fought between 1814 and 1816 between forces of Gorkha army of Kingdom of Nepal and British forces. Both sides wanted to expand their control over mountainous regions of Himalayas. The war ended with the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816 which ceded some Nepali territory to the East India Company. Lord Hastings was the Governor-General during this time.
  • Anglo-Tibet relations: Curzon sent an expeditionary mission under Younghusband in 1903. Tibet during this time was an independent state ruled by the Dalai Lama. This invasion was intended to counter the Russian’s ambitions in Central Asia. The expeditionary force reached Lhasa, the capital of Tibet.
  • Anglo-Afghan relations: Sindh Conquest: Sindh accepted the subsidiary alliance in 1839. In 1843 under Governor-General Ellenborough, Sindh was merged into British empire. Charles Napier was appointed as its first governor. Sindh also signed the Tripartite treaty with the English and Ranjit Singh.
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