Shah Jahan (1627-58 AD)
- Earlier known as Khurram.
- The number of mansabdars doubled from the times of Akbar.
- Area under cultivation and cash crop production increased during his reign.
- Stopped the practices of Sijda and Paibos.
- Bernier, Tavernier and Manucci visited during his reign.
- Credited with architectural marvels like Taj Mahal made in white marble, Jama Masjid in Delhi built in red sandstone and Moti Masjid.
- His reign saw a terrible war of succession between Aurangzeb and his brothers Dara and Shuja.
Aurangzeb (1658-1707 AD)
- He assumed title of Alamgir. He used to issue secular decrees called Zawabits.
- He adopted a harsh religious policy, put a ban on sati, destroyed Hindu temples and reimposed Jizya. He forbade music in the court practices like Nauroz, Tuladan, Jharokha Darshna and discontinued celebration of Holi and Diwali in Durbar.
- Despite Aurangzeb being against music, largest number of books on classical Indian music in Persian were written during his time.
- Executed 9th Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur which led to Sikh revolt and their turning into a warring community.
- Faced Jat & Satnami uprising. Marathas & Rajputs were opponents of his empire.
- Constructed Moti Masjid & Rabia Durrani’s tomb.