Insurgency In North-East

  • Northeast region comprises eight States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is culturally and ethnically diverse having more than 200 ethnic groups which have distinct languages, dialects and sociocultural identities. Almost all its borders of about 5,484 Kilometres are international border.
  • The States in India’s Northeast region have a long history of conflict and violence among the tribal groups within the same State, and neighbouring States. A major part of the geographical area of this region was initially within the ambit of the State of Assam but the manifestation of ethno-nationalism quite often expressed through violence, led to the formation of some of the present States through various stages of evolution during the post-Independence period. 

Groups involved in Insurgency in Northeast

List of Insurgent/Extremist Groups of Northeast Declared as “Unlawful Associations” and “Terrorist Organizations” Under Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

Assam·    United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA)
·    National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB)
Manipur·    People’s Liberation Army (PLA)
·    United National Liberation Front (UNLF)
·    Manipur Peoples’ Liberation Front (MPLF)
MeghalayaGaro National Liberation Army (GNLA)
TripuraAll Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF)
NagalandNational Socialist Council of Nagaland (Khaplang) [NSCN/K]

Reasons for Insurgency in Northeast

  • Ethno-Nationalism and lack of integration with Nationalistic aspirations. This was primarily because of British policy of isolation of these states from the mainstream Nationalist movement.
  • Demands for autonomy EX: Mizo movement, Naga movement etc.
  • Change in Demography due to immigration from neighbouring countries and the resistance from the natives. EX – migration after Bangladesh liberation War.Existence of militant groups. EX: NSCN-K, NSCN-IM.Alienation of Tribal people due intrusion by outsiders.Porous borders.
  • Existence of terrorist camps across the border in Myanmar. The recent instance of “HOT PURSUIT” by Armed Forces is a case in point.

Security situation in Northeast since 2012 (MHA annual report)


Key Facts

  • While Sikkim, Mizoram and Tripura had no insurgency related violence in 2016, there was considerable decline in incidents in Meghalaya (44%) and Nagaland (43%) compared to 2015.
  • In 2016, Manipur accounted for about 48% of total violent incidents in the region and Arunachal Pradesh experienced an increase in violent activities by 38%, primarily on account of violence by NSCN/K.

Steps taken by Government

  • Policy for talks / negotiation with such groups which categorically abjure violence, lay down arms and seek solutions for their problems peacefully within the framework of the Constitution of India.
  • Those who are not in talks are being dealt with by the Central Armed Police Forces, Armed Forces and the State Police through Counter-Insurgency Operations.
  • Law and order is a state subject. Thus, Central Government is supplementing the states for curbing the illegal and unlawful activities of militant / insurgent groups of Northeast. These include deployment of Central Armed Police Forces, central assistance to the State Governments for modernization of State Police Forces.
  • The entire State of Manipur (except Imphal Municipal area), Nagaland and Assam are under Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA).
  • Central Government has deployed Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) to aid the State authorities for carrying out counter insurgency operations.

 Major Schemes administered by NE Division:

  • Scheme for Surrender-cum Rehabilitation of militants in Northeast. Ministry of Home Affairs has been implementing a scheme for Surrender-cum-Rehabilitation of militants in Northeast w.e.f. 01.01.1998 (revised on 01.04.2005) to wean away the misguided youth and hard-core militants.
  • Civic Action Program in Northeast. To take the local populace in confidence and boost the image of armed forces for among the common people, Army and Central Paramilitary Forces conduct Civic Action Program. Under this Program, various welfare / developmental activities are undertaken.
  • Advertisement and Publicity. Under this scheme, various initiatives are undertaken including the visits of youths of NE States to rest of India and vice-versa under the aegis of Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS), journalist visits to NE States, broadcast of radio etc.
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