- National security is a function of a country’s external environment and internal situation, as well as their interplay with each other.
- Former is influenced by major features of prevailing international order, disposition of its immediate & extended neighbours and major powers.
- Internal situation encompasses many aspects of national life, ranging from law and order to economic fundamentals, from quality of governance to national cohesiveness.
- In today’s interdependent world, distinction between internal & external security concerns often gets blurred.
- Warfare refers to common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.
Changing Nature of Internal Security
- Traditional concept of national security has undergone fundamental changes over the years. It is no longer synonymous with sufficient military strength to defend nation and its interests.
- In today’s world, military might alone does not guarantee either sovereignty or security.
- More realistic and comprehensive approach to national security includes economic strength, internal cohesion, and technological prowess.
- A strong sense of nationalism and good governance forms an integral part of national security; and ability to retain political, economic sovereignty & autonomy of decision making, in an era of globalisation & increasing economic interdependence.
- Both external and internal environment are changing at an incredibly fast pace, with developments in nuclear weapons and missiles, increasing cross-border terrorism, emergence of non-state actors, growth of Islamic fundamentalism, narcotics-arms nexus, illegal migration, and left-wing extremism, gravely impacting upon the security of the country.
Changing External Security Environment
- Rise of China and collusion of China & Pakistan pose a threat of ‘Two Front War’ for India.
- Taliban in Afghanistan: Afghanistan can become a breeding ground for terrorists.
- Nuclear Weapons: Continuous proliferation of nuclear weapons and missiles in our neighbourhood and in Pakistan poses major threats to our security. Pakistan has been developing tactical nuclear weapons which can be used in a battlefield.
- Technological Development: Revolution in Information Technology has deepened the process of globalisation. This poses a threat of global cyber warfare & cyber security threats from enemy nations.
- Globalization: Many aspects of national life which were within the domain of sovereignty have become subjects of multilateral consideration. This has led to politicization of human rights and increasingly intrusive international regimes which curtail autonomy of national decision making.
- Emergence of Non-State Actors: Emergence of non-state terrorist actors and rise of their international influence is accelerating. Much of their activity is clandestine and outside accepted international norms. International and state-sponsored terrorism, often motivated by fundamentalist ideologies, backed by secretive but efficient financial networks, use of IT, clandestine access to chemical-biological and nuclear materials, and illicit drug trafficking, has emerged as a major threat to international stability.