Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian Independence since the twenties of the last century.

Sample Answer


The Indian national movement evolved in its vision and goals since the 1920s. Along with the primary aim of political independence, new objectives like social reform, economic development, removal of caste barriers and civil liberties gained prominence, shaping India’s post-independence trajectory.


Social Reform:

  • Prominent social reform movements emerged like the Self Respect Movement started by Periyar in 1925 that advocated for equal rights and status for Dravidians.
  • Gandhi’s initiatives like the Vaikom Satyagraha in 1924 for temple entry for untouchables and Bardoli Satyagraha in 1928 for peasant welfare uplifted marginalized sections.

Economic Development:

  • Thinkers like Dadabhai Naoroji through his ‘Drain Theory’ highlighted the economic exploitation of India under colonial rule.
  • The 1920s onwards, rising demands were made by leaders like M. Visvesvaraya for planned industrialization, rural development banks for farmers and cooperatives to achieve economic progress.

Removal of Caste Barriers:

  • Mass campaigns challenging caste discrimination like the Satyagraha in 1924 led by T.K. Madhavan for temple entry in Kerala and Ambedkar’s call for ‘annihilation of caste’ through his movements like the Mahad Satyagraha in 1927 expanded the movement’s objectives beyond political goals.

Socialist Ideas and Civil Rights:

  • The influence of the Russian revolution led to the growth of socialist ideas of equality propagated by leaders like Jayprakash Narayan.
  • The rise of peasant organisations like the Kisan Sabha in 1936 and labor unions like the All India Trade Union Congress in 1920 strengthened the focus on economic rights and civil liberties.


The evolving national movement came to represent not just independence from foreign rule but also a vision of a more socially just, equitable, democratic and participative society. This shaped India’s constitutional and policy commitments towards uplifting the marginalized and ensuring civil rights post-independence.

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