Small peninsular rivers flowing towards East

image 151


Originates from Chhotanagpur plateau.


  • Originates from Kendujhar hills, Odisha.
  • Main tributaries of Baitarni joining from left are Salandi and Matai.


  • Formed due to confluence of two rivers, South Koel and Sankh
  • Drains into Bay of Bengal near Wheeler islands.
  • The important tributaries of Brahmani joining it from left are the Karo, and the Sankh whereas the Tikra joins from right.

Brahmani – Baitarni Delta

The basin consisting of Brahmani and Baitarni extends over states of Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh having an area of 51,822 The basin is bounded by the Chhotanagpur Plateau on the north, by the ridge separating it from Mahanadi basin on the west and the south and by the Bay of Bengal on the east. The lower reaches of this basin near the deltaic area are subject to floods. Since Mahanadi, Brahmani and Baitarani are interconnected near their delta, worst flood occur when there is simultaneous heavy rains in all the three catchments. Prolonged submergence and breaching of embankments are common occurrences during floods. Floods are also caused from cyclonic storms since the coastal areas of the basin are cyclone prone.

Bhitarkanika national park is situated at the mouth of Brahmani, Baitarni and Dhamra rivers which is famous for saltwater crocodiles. Dense mangrove forests are found here. There also lies Gahirmatha beach and Gahirmatha wildlife sanctuary which is world’s largest ground for Olive Ridley Turtles.


  • Originates from Southern Odisha


  • Northern Pennar originates from Nandidurg hills, Karnataka.
  • Southern Pennar originates from Keshav hills, Karnataka.


  • Originates from Kolar distt, Karnataka.
  • Poini and Cheyyar are two main tributaries.


  • Originates from Varshanad hills, Tamil Nadu.
  • Drains into Palk Bay.
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