Values are standards that direct our conduct in various ways. They also provide standards of morality.
Values are concerned with the character and conduct of a person.
Values are a self-managing mechanism that is not intuitive; instead, they are acquired from surroundings through participatory and anticipatory learning processes.
Values are the core of human personality.
Values are above specific objects, situations, or persons. (Attitude is towards a particular object, situation, or person). E.g., The value of justice is for everything (while the attitude of justice would be concerning gender, caste etc).
Values are expressed less in day-to-day life than in the expression of attitude.
Values are relatively stable and enduring. However, intense incidents in life can change the value system. E.g., The value change of Ashoka after the war of Kalinga, Ungalimal, Valmiki etc.
Classification of Human Values
Intrinsic/End/Terminal value: which has its worth, like justice.
Extrinsic/Mean/Instrumental value: which helps in achieving the end value like courage.
Terminal and Instrumental Values
The core permanent values that often become character traits are known as terminal values. They can be beneficial or harmful. It is extremely difficult to change them. Terminal Values are a person’s life objectives- the ultimate things he or she wants to achieve through his or her behaviour.
Instrumental values, according to social psychologist Milton Rokeach, are specific modes of behaviour. They are not an end goal in themselves, but rather a means of achieving one.
Examples-Happiness, self-respect, family security, recognition, freedom, inner-harmony, comfortable-life, professional-excellence